Rock Art (Rock Relief) in The Kurdistan Region of Iraq, Which Has Encountered The Threats of Disappearing

  • Rukhsar Ramadhan Ahmed Halgurd High Schoool, Directorate Education of Rania, Ministry of Education, Kurdistan Region, Iraq.
  • Aras Ismail Khider Archaeology Department, College of Art, Salahaddin University, Erbil, Kurdistan Region, Iraq.
Keywords: Rock Art, Archeological Sites, Human-Natural Factors, Kurdistan Region.


The Art rock is formed as pictures on strones which are made in different forms and in different ways including crafted pictures, status, maps, crafting on castle walls, and ancient temples, and coloured pictures, which can be founed on the stone shelters, mountan sides, and caves.

This ancient art reflects religious sprituality, cultural principles of community, and architecture framework of ancient communities. This study aims in showing the importance of this art in the archaeology of Kurdistan Region as national and regional treasure.

Here, this art form is crucial similar to the global archoleagy in the world, because this art form is a special way for seperatin community, teaching values and norms, origionality, as well as human relations to the earth they are living on.

Indicating the main natural and man-made factors such as; development, new construction, renovating some parts has negative influence on a portion of those archoloegical sites which has led to graffiti damages and intentional destrunction. Because, some of these archaeological sites are situated close to major touristes destinations which are another drawback for getting access to the sites without considering the human actions in those places.  In this regard, being careless, and having limited awareness and information about the importance of archaeology and considering it as a national wealth has led to devastation of some significant sites. Aside from the human factors, natural disasters have left a negative influence on the archaeological sites in the Kurdistan Region.

This research is composed of the following parts: the first section introduces the history of rock art and the types of this art, the objectives, and human intentions in drawing and crafting those symbols, and pictures that human beings have produced in the ancient times. The second part of this research highlights the human and natural factors that have put pressure on those important archaeological sites which are facing threats.

The last part focuses on the findings, and recommendations; such as highlighting some of the legal principles, which aim to reduce the risks and pressure on rock art and their destruction. It will also include important procedures for spreading awareness of these sites to individuals and the wider community regarding archaeology and the need to protect the region’s tangible heritage.


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How to Cite
Ahmed, R., & Khider, A. (2020). Rock Art (Rock Relief) in The Kurdistan Region of Iraq, Which Has Encountered The Threats of Disappearing. Journal of University of Raparin, 7(4), 640-673.