Journal of University of Raparin 2023-03-29T11:38:14+00:00 Journal of Open Journal Systems <header class="major"> <h3 align="right">&nbsp;</h3> </header> Kurdish Issue in Iraq and Justifications of Kurdistan Region’s Independence Referendum in 2017 2023-01-20T18:20:56+00:00 Sasan Hikmat Ali Sleman Abdullah Ismael <p>The right of self determination is an internationally endorsed right of nations, especially those nations affected by suppression and assimilation campaigns on their own land. Therefore, nations suffering from economic, political, cultural, and in extreme cases religious and historical marginalization have the right to establish their own independent states. One way to achieve this goal is holding public referendum. Referendums provide the oppressed nations with the opportunity to express their will in a democratic manner and ask for implementation of their inalienable right of self-determination.</p> <p>Since the establishment of the state of Iraq, Iraqi Kurds have been repeatedly oppressed and marginalized by successive Iraqi governments. Brutality of governments in Baghdad pushed Kurds to seek independence to no avail. The region’s geopolitical realities and ongoing conflicts and rivalries over controlling the natural resources of the region have played a major part in Kurdish failure in establishing an independent state. This research explores the diverse aspects of the Kurdish issue in Iraq with the aim of signifying the role geopolitics has played in creation and continuation of problems between the Iraqi government and Kurdistan Region.</p> <p>In order to achieve its stated goal, the research is divided into the following sections: First, an introduction, followed by a section dedicated to emergence and evolution of the Kurdish issue in Iraq. The third section discusses the justifications of Kurdistan’s independence referendum, which is followed by the conclusion section that presents the findings and recommendations of the study.</p> 2023-03-29T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Journal of University of Raparin Language and Linguistic Violence in Education Field 2023-01-20T19:11:05+00:00 Shukur Mohammed Saleh Nareman Abdwlla Kareem <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; &nbsp;This study, which is entitled “Language and Linguistic Violence in Education Field”, deals with the use of language in educational field. The use of a violent language entails psychological and physical violence. There are many factors for an individual to have a violent language, including community, family, and school environment. Therefore, this issue has to be addressed seriously in educational settings. Schools should be made like a centre where positive influences to be placed on individual’s language and intellect. The texts studies in schools should be composed in a way that takes into account the feelings of all. Besides, the nation’s philosophy of forming individual’s language and thought is reflected in these texts in terms of individual’s behaviour and etiquette. Hereby, there must plan for building individuals free from hatred and violence. This study is divided into two sections, conclusions, and list of references.</p> <p>Section one is entitled “Language and Linguistic Violence from Social Perspective”. It covers the concept of language and its use; linguistic violence definition; psychological concept of linguistic violence; characteristics of a violent language; the impact of linguistic violence on family and society; and the social factors of linguistic violence.&nbsp;</p> <p>Section two, Language and Linguistic Violence in Education, addresses linguistic violence in education; the connection between linguistic violence and violent behaviour; the relationship between linguistic violence and communication; language plans in education system; characteristics of language in educational field; and language functions.&nbsp;</p> 2023-03-29T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Journal of University of Raparin The Theology of Optimism in Leibniz's philosophical 'Theodasis' 2023-01-20T20:16:15+00:00 Nawzad Jamal Hamafaraj <p>Leibniz is considered one of the pioneers of rational philosophy and one of the mathematicians of his time، Therefore, we find in his texts rational solutions and alternatives in a mathematical way to philosophical and theological problems and dilemmas such as the 'problem of evil' and cosmic harmony, and the 'principle of sufficient cause' and the compatibility between the perfection of God as the source of good and the existence of evil in the universe، Also, he tries to prove the existence of God with rational evidence، And he wants to reconcile religious sects، But this discription of him, gives a stereotypical picture of Leibniz and his philosophy، And does not cover the other side in it: facing the existential anxiety of man because of the existence of evil in the universe through optimism, and that the world is the best possible world، From here, it turns out that his optimistic view presents a comprehensive picture of the universe, and proves the existence of good and not just evil in the world، The basis of human optimism, lack of despair, and anxiety about the fate of man in the emergence of evil, is belief in the power of omnipotence and wisdom، He also tried to establish the pillars of his philosophy on hope and optimism, and on the principle of harmony and logical compatibility between the contradictions in the universe/world، All this indicates the truth; That Leibniz is not only religious and theologian in the prevailing sense, but he tried to solve a fundamental and existential problem of the human being، And that the significance of being in a world full of immoral things can be balanced، Therefore, solving the problem of evil and tragedies with an equivalent of optimism as a basis for human existence، Because he believed in the ability of the mind to reach the truth، On the other hand, things and events can be seen as an equation to maintain balance and cosmic harmony.</p> 2023-03-29T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Journal of University of Raparin Society's Attitude Towards Redundant Prisoners" in the Light of Labeling Theory" 2023-01-24T16:54:21+00:00 Wirya Maaroof Hamadsaaed <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; Crime is a terrible social phenomenon that society has suffered from throughout history, so the process of integration of released prisoners with society is difficult after going through the reform process, because the sign of crime and guilt will keep following him/ her which is difficult for him/her to reintegrate into society. The main purpose of this study is to determine the effects of social stigma on the released prisoner, as well as the perceptions of the surrounding and the released prisoner about life and future in the society that is labeled as a criminal. This research is a qualitative study using the method of case study, in which the problems and difficulties faced by released prisoners and what happens to their role and position in society are analyzed in the light of the theory. The community of this study is Erbil, which consists of seven samples. The most important results are that they face many social problems and life becomes difficult for them to reintegrate into society, and they lose their position and role is weakened.</p> 2023-03-29T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Journal of University of Raparin Using Post-Production Stage Actions to Enhance the Quality of Television Programs: A Descriptive-Analytics Study of the “Ba Wrdi” Program of the NRT Channel 2023-01-24T18:02:51+00:00 Nazakat Hussain Hamasaeed AbdulSamad Qadir Hussain Mohammed Rasw Ahmed <p><strong>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; </strong>Post-Production Stage is considered as one of the most important elements of production. Through this stage, the process of editing, organization and the consistency among video shots, sounds and colors is done by color-artists, designers, video editors, sound editors and animators. Post-Production Stage appeared with the development of television production technology. As such, how the Kurdish TV Channels use Post-Production Stage is becoming an increasingly critical subject of analysis and research. The need for researching, understanding and uncovering the use of post-production stage is very important.</p> <p>&nbsp;&nbsp; In this paper, the researcher has taken NRT channel, its second season of “Ba Wrdi” program as a case study. The analysis-method was used for this study. The second season of “Ba Wrdi” has 26 episodes and 172 scenes. The researcher has studied 150 minutes and 33 seconds in the total of the 26 episodes. The present paper has arrived at the following conclusions that Designers of the program used color correction for the same purpose. They used color correction for the purpose of visual appeal rather than solving color issues, and in the programs designed by local NRT staff members, there are statistical discrepancies in color grading. This shows a limitation of experience and expertise of the NRT local post-production staff, also Designers of the channel have mostly used text and pictures in motion graphics.</p> 2023-03-29T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Journal of University of Raparin The Role of Religion in Peaceful Relations and the Trojan War Between Ancient Greece and Asia Minor 2023-01-30T13:46:47+00:00 Muhammadamin Ali Abdullah Snwr Ahmed Hassan <p>The study is entitled “The role of religion in peaceful relations and the Trojan War between ancient Greece and Asia Minor” highlights the peaceful relations between Greece and Asia Minor from ancient times until the arrival of Alexander the Great, their un peaceful relations in the Battle of Trojan, the role and influence of religion in the formation of these relations the similarity of the gods and create colony and trading, Participating in the party and festivals, and The Battle of Trojan is also cited as an example of their non-peaceful relationship.</p> <p>The study consists of an introduction and summary in both Kurdish and English, conclusions, list of sources and three discussions. The first topic is a historical brief about ancient Greece and Asia Minor and an introduction to religion, The second topic deals with the role of religion in the peaceful relations between ancient Greece and Asia Minor, The third topic account for the role of religion in the War of Trojan. This is in addition to presenting the findings of the study.</p> 2023-03-29T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Journal of University of Raparin Faculty and Students’ Perspectives on using Games-Based Learning as A Teaching Strategy in Nursing Education 2023-02-04T14:19:36+00:00 Dlzar Sedeeq Anwer Sahar Ismail Abdullah <p><strong>Background and objectives:</strong> In general, the term 'games-based learning’ (GBL) refers to an activity that encourages students to participate in the lesson through game-playing in order to engage and keep them focused. The games can be both non-digital and digital.</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> A quantitative design and cross-sectional descriptive study were done. The study included 70 nursing and midwifery students as well as 30 faculty. This study was conducted from the period of November 2021 until October 2022.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> Most of the faculty were 40-49 (36.7%). The faculty gender was 50 % male and 50% female. According to this study’s findings, the majority of the faculty (80 %) and more than half of the students (60 %) agreed that game-based learning is beneficial in the nursing educational program. While (80%) of the faculty and more than (72%) of students agreed that game-based learning increases students’ critical thinking skills.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>Game-based learning as a teaching approach in nursing education programs plays a crucial role in increasing students' involvement. This study found that students and faculty believe that game-based learning improves students' critical thinking skills, which will help them do better in school.</p> <p><strong>Keywords</strong>: Game-Based Learning, Teaching Strategy, Student, Faculty, Nursing Education</p> 2023-03-29T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Journal of University of Raparin Gender in Kurdish Education Program 2023-02-04T21:50:42+00:00 Agreen Shawkat Hadi Azad Ahmad Mahmood Nareman Abdullah Kareem <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; Gender-related problems and gender diversity have always existed in schools. Many fields of school life are created around the role of traditional gender</p> <p>Schools play a key role in teaching and strengthening the dominant values of culture, particularly in gender. It is true that students go to school from day one, or kindergarten, known as their gender, and are called boys and girls. Their gender is constantly practiced through stories and free plays and interactions with teachers and peers. Schools are a place to seek special relationship with "best friends" in elementary school and "boys' friends" or "girls" about families and learn about relationships. These are the things that the community expects, and much of what happens at school is related to the gender side, which is why it is important for educators to have a strong understanding of how to deal with gender.</p> <p>This research is a way to raise awareness and show gender issues in the subjects of the education program. Research (in southern Kurdistan) is not sufficient to raise awareness of gender equality in schools. In this study, the texts (the third grade Kurdish reading book) are based on analyzing texts and images, and the results show that the Kurdish study program includes gender inequality. In other words, the image, role and duties of both genders are not taken into consideration equally. The results of this study are an attempt to take into account gender equality (text, images, tasks and roles) when the curriculum is set up.</p> 2023-03-29T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Journal of University of Raparin Job Satisfaction among Teachers in Deaf Institutes and its Relationship to Some of the Variables 2023-02-07T22:14:07+00:00 Nazeera Salih Mohammed Mihraban Hussen Salih Aras Osman Mohammad <p>This study aims to identify the level of the Job satisfaction among teachers in deaf institutes and its relationship to some of the variables:&nbsp; Gender, marital status, educational qualification, and years of service, teaching load, and monthly income. The study used the descriptive analytical approach and the study tool were consisted of job satisfaction scale, were the tool applied on sample of (30) teachers (20 Females 10 Males). They were selected in an intentional, stratified manner from a number of deaf institutes. The study results showed that job satisfaction among teachers of deaf institutes level is medium, and was there area of satisfaction with estimating the teacher for his career has received the first grade, followed by the field of the relationship between the teachers administering, and followed by the third level area of satisfaction about the social sphere. Came level fourth area of satisfaction with the school evaluation, Followed by the area of satisfaction with educational supervision, came level the last area of satisfaction with the incentives and salaries.</p> <p>In addition, the study results indicated that there were no statistically significant differences in the level of job satisfaction among teachers in due to the variables: gender, marital status, educational qualification, years of service, teaching load, monthly income. In addition to some of recommendations for developing job satisfaction for talent students in the Kurdistan Region of Iraq and Iraq.</p> 2023-03-29T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Journal of University of Raparin The Semantics of ‘black’ and ‘white’ Idiomatic Expressions in English and Central Kurdish 2023-02-17T21:48:14+00:00 Lana Amanj Mahmood Himdad Abdulqahar Muhammad <p>Colours are loaded with idiomatic and metaphorical associations in different languages and cultures. They do not only express colours themselves but they express feelings, emotions, and different notions of cultures and languages through idiomatic expressions. Moreover, investigation into colours and idiomaticity has been of interest to many scholars. The purpose of this paper is to investigate the semantics of ‘black’ and ‘white’ colour idiomatic expressions in English and Central Kurdish. The meaning of the colour expressions varies according to their degree of transparency and opacity. Hence, this paper aims at discovering the degree of transparency and opacity of ‘black’ and ‘white’ idiomatic expressions in English and Central Kurdish. Many examples of colour idiomatic expressions have been collected from dictionaries, other researchers’ previous works and everyday speech in both languages. Then, the collected data is categorized and then analyzed based on ‘black’ and ‘white’ degrees of transparency and opacity. The results show that both languages contain several idiomatic colour expressions under the three types of idioms (transparent, semi-transparent, and opaque). However, the number of expressions varies from one type to another. Moreover, certain colour expressions in Central Kurdish are combined with body parts that are not found in the English samples. Besides, the ‘black’ and ‘white’ expressions can express feelings, attitudes and personal moods in addition to their literal meanings.</p> 2023-03-29T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Journal of University of Raparin Investigating the Quality of Language Tests; Calculating the Reliability Coefficient of Placement Test as a Case Study 2022-05-10T08:14:26+00:00 Jamal Ali Omar Sardar Abdulla Hussein <p>Language measurement tools should be valid and reliable by which the test scores obtained help drawing meaningful inferences and, fairly enough, significant decisions are made. This study attended to the reliability of an English language placement test. The aim of the study is to find out the reliability estimate of that type of test. Based on the Classical Test Theory, the reliability coefficient of the test should be computed to find out the range of the measurement error and achieve an estimate of the candidates’ true scores. To this end, the data obtained from the administration of University of Raparin’s Language and Development Center Placement Test<a href="#_edn1" name="_ednref1">[i]</a>, which was administered to 889 freshmen students, was analyzed. The method is descriptive and exploratory in which, by using the split half method, the three formulas – Kuder-Richardson 20 and Spearmen-Brown Prophecy – were used to calculate the reliability estimate of the test. The results showed that the reliability estimate of the test is 0.81. They also showed that the number of the items of the test should be doubled in order to achieve the desired reliability of 0.9 and above. Thus, based on the results obtained, it is recommended that the test structure should be improved to achieve a higher rate of reliability estimate. It is also recommended that the test should be modified; test items need to be increased and the content amended to cover all the language skills. Additionally, it is recommended that other sources of unreliability, namely, test administration and individual test items need to be studied to find the source of measurement error.</p> 2023-03-29T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Journal of University of Raparin Teachers' Perspectives towards the Implementation of Assessment for Learning at University Level 2023-02-18T15:21:52+00:00 Sirwan Abdulrahman Mahmud Sam580h@Ena.Soran.Edu.Iq Mahabad Izaddin M. Amin <p>Assessment for learning (AFL) is&nbsp;an approach to teaching and learning that creates feedback to improve students' performance. Students become more involved in the learning process and gain confidence in what they are expected to learn and to what standard. The present study is a quantitative study that aims to investigate university EFL teachers' perspectives of assessment for learning approach and identify the challenges teachers face when implementing AfL. Also, three research questions are addressed: (1) To what extent do English language teachers use assessment for learning in their classes? (2) What are the teachers' perspectives on Assessment for Learning in developing EFL learning? And (3) What challenges do EFL teachers face when implementing AFL? &nbsp;</p> <p>To answer the research questions, the study used a 25-item questionnaire (Modified of Colby, D. C. 2010). The questionnaire was distributed to 102 EFL teachers at three public universities in Erbil: Salahaddin (55 teachers), Soran (34 teachers) and Koya Universities (13 teachers).</p> <p>The data was analyzed using SPSS Software. Despite some varied challenges and difficulties EFL teachers face in implementing the AfL approach in the classes, generally, the results show that university teachers have a positive perspective toward implementing AfL as a teaching and learning approach. It is recommended that it is necessary to arrange and implement teacher-training sessions and workshops to improve teacher' grasp of the current AFL approach.</p> 2023-03-29T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Journal of University of Raparin Form Habermas’s Communicative Paradigm to Honneth’s Recognition Paradigm 2022-05-12T18:42:12+00:00 Aram Amin Shwani Tahir Hasso Zebari <p>From Huberman’s Communicative Paradigm to Honneth’s Recognition Paradigm</p> <p>Habermas, through the communicative action paradigm, which is relying on a linguistic structure and intersubjective principle, trying to provide a solution for oppression and suffering in the social life. He thinks dialogue ethic and linguistic communications are suitable mechanisms for solving the social oppression and injustice.</p> <p>The <strong>main question</strong> of this research is; Is recognition an appropriate theory for the treatment of social oppression and can it open our eyes to social oppression more clearly?, Axel Honneth, as a third generation of Frankfurt school, criticizes Habermas’s paradigm and constitute a recognition paradigm. He thinks, if individual experience recognition, through socialization process and in three spheres and three forms of (love, right and solidarity), so he makes a good self-relation and world-relations. But if in three spheres experience three forms of (hate, denial of rights and neglecting), then he experiences a deep oppression and collapse his relation with himself and world, and this collapse it is a social oppression. Therefore, the <strong>purpose</strong> of this research is to introduce confession as an appropriate theory for the treatment of social oppression and an appropriate social life and present the scope and forms of confession. Finally, the study reached several <strong>conclusions</strong>, the most important of which are: The deprivation of the individual of the right to self-realization is a profound social oppression, which can be recognized in three important spheres (such as family, state and society). Provide a more favorable environment for self-realization. Therefore, both the experience of recognition and the experience of non-recognition have an impact on one's identity and personality.</p> 2023-03-29T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Journal of University of Raparin The Relationship between Art and Education 2023-02-23T18:20:19+00:00 Hasan Husen Sdiq Bayar Othman Qadir <p>Art and education are two main significant subjects. They have had a great effect on both Man's life and thinking in past and their effects in present which are seen obviously yet nowadays.</p> <p>Indeed, as two different independent fields, each of them has its own independent concept, task and indication as well as there is a strong connection between them at the same time. As it can be seen and sensed their effective roles in Man's life and thinking clearly in different ways, in the same way, their connections are obvious and it has been reached a level that makes a new independent philosophical ideological field come into being which is (Education of Art).</p> <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; Art is a way of using of imagination to express idea through the various kinds of arts such as: music, drawing and painting, performance, literature, sculpture or any other subject in the field. According to different eras, philosophies and understandings; art has a different indication and meaning. In giving importance on the concept of art, it has been different form an era and a philosophy to an era and philosophy in different times and it can be seen that its significance is different clearly.</p> <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; In the same way, education is a really important subject and Man has given importance to it from pre-historic era for the purpose of directing, instructing, teaching and educating a person or a thing so as to adapt with a various environment and different elements until the final stage which is endurable.</p> <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; The significance and key role of this field has been noticed and seen in different ways throughout history. Although, each of art and education has relation with each other and they have influence on each other, at the same time, each of them has relationship with other sciences in different ways. Because, these two subjects are not closed subjects in the face of other fields like knowledge, thinking and public life. These connections are clearly appeared in fields of sociology, religion, science, ethics, psychology and nature.</p> <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; The relationship between art and education is more appeared in the education of children. The educators demand to get benefit from art to improve and ease the process of education, at the same time, it is given importance to education in order to teach different kinds of arts.</p> 2023-03-29T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Journal of University of Raparin Effects of Dadaism in the Poems of Farhad Pirbal 2023-02-24T21:56:37+00:00 Kosrat Ali Abdullah Farhang Muzafar Muhamad <p>This study is about ( Effects of Dadaism in the poems of Farhad Pirbal ). It is divided into two sections, The first category is devoted to theory, and it is divided into five subcategories: first, what is Dadaism, second, how it began, and third, publishing of Dadaisms. We'll speak about how and why it ended in the fourth subcategory. We shall briefly address Farhad Pirbal's revolt against the norms and Anti-Common in the fifth and final subcategory. The second aspect, which is a practical approach, is to classify certain of Farhad Pirbal's poetry as Dadaistic poems. And the outcomes are displayed. Reliable sources are used, and the study abstract is translated into Arabic and English at the conclusion.</p> 2023-03-29T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Journal of University of Raparin The Technique of Repetition in the Poems of Farhad Pirbal and Foroughi Forukhzad 2023-02-25T21:20:44+00:00 Hawkar Qadir Rasul Rebaz Mohammad Amin <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; This research is entitled "The Technique of Repetition in The Poems of Farhad Pirbal and Foroughi Forukhzad" by benefiting from the principles of the French school in the science of literature comparison, one of the most important elements of poetry is the poetry of both poets, the technique of repetition, as a prominent principle and embodiment of the structure of inner music in new poems in general and the poetry of both poets in particular. The comparison between the two poets seems to be due to the fact that, despite the fact that the poetry experiences of both poets are very similar in many ways, this is a valuable focus on the science of literary comparison, on the other hand. The repetition technique is seen as a prominent symbol of the poetic style of both poets in terms of belief, which we believe is a fully aware process and is worth considering by the French school. That is why, despite the repeated types of repetition by both poets, we have pointed to the similarity and co-ordination of the worldview of both poets, and we have proved to what extent pirbal's poetry experience has been influenced by The Worldview of Forough Farrokhzad.</p> 2023-03-29T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Journal of University of Raparin Koya District in the Stone Ages 2023-03-04T17:12:54+00:00 Ardalan Othman Hassan Khoshnaw Hemin Naman Kawes <p>&nbsp; &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;The Stone Ages are considered the longest age’s humans have lived on earth. These periods were named after the technical aspect of using stone mainly along with wood and bone to make tools used in one's daily life in those periods. The division of these periods came on the basis of the shape and method of making the stone machines and the types of stones used to make them.</p> <p>&nbsp;&nbsp; The Koya district, as a part of the Iraqi-Kurdistan region, includes many archaeological sites dating back to these periods which are represented by a number of caves, shelters, valleys, and river banks, which times date back to different stages of these periods. According to the archaeological surveys that have been carried out in the areas of the Koya district and the visits to different areas of the district and the research that we have carried out, it has become clear to us that the Stone Age of the region, like the rest of the Kurdistan region, is divided into several roles, such as Paleolithic, Mesolithic, and Neolithic.</p> 2023-03-29T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Journal of University of Raparin The Internal Structure of the Derived Word in Kurdish Language According to the Morpheme-Based Model and the Word-Based Model 2023-03-04T17:56:06+00:00 Sherwan Hussen Hamed Shimal Zeki Hussein <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; Word-formation is part of linguistics that deals with the internal structure of words. It aims at creating a theory in order to describe and explain the lexical structures of all languages. This has derived from the hypothesis that if grammar is the systematic language knowledge of an interlocutor, then possibly there could be a substructure hypothesized inside the grammar structure that explains the lexical knowledge of the interlocutor. Thus, this study has focused on both models, base-morpheme and base-word, which are one of the language models that have been pointed out in the frame of the school of production linguistics so as to analyze and interpret the lexical system of language.</p> <p>This study, particularly, is based on the perspective of (Mark Aronoff, 1976) in the model of base-word. Also, in terms of base-morpheme, the perspective of (Morris Halle, 1973) has been taken into consideration. In fact, these two perspectives are considered the turning point in research on word-formation. Therefore, we have made attempts to analyze the structure of derivational words in the Kurdish language with reference to these two perspectives to obtain the morphological rules that exist in an orderly and abstract way in the cognitive parts of the native speakers of the Kurdish language. These rules are called the "pillars" of language because they are the foundation from which other elements are made.</p> 2023-03-29T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Journal of University of Raparin Antagonism and Radical Politics in the Philosophy of Slavoj Žižek 2023-03-04T19:01:28+00:00 Sherzad Ahmad Najjar Idrees Omar Mustafa <p>The relationship between truth and politics in Slavoj Žižek’s political philosophy is a problematic relationship, particularly in post-modern discourse and global liberal order, because in the context of this discourse, the relative truth has a direct impact on politics as a subordinate filed leading to the fragmentation of the society.</p> <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; Žižek believes that within the dominant system and its ideology, which finds itself in consumer capitalism, there are always possibilities of resistance, especially as he defines politics as a manifestation of class struggle in its economic dimension. The perpetrator of this struggle appears as a historical subject and manifests in the form of deprived and excluded groups, or marginalization of society. This will become an empty hole or group that the system does not embrace or include.</p> <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; In return, this will remain as a permanent crack or hole in the system and will not allow the system to be completely closed or reach absolute integration. In addition, this will remain as a possibility of revolution and protest and become a dynamic element in a dialectic relationship that moves politics at its radical level.</p> <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; This article is divided into two parts. In the first part, the article talks about the politics of truth and events, universal truth, representation, event and change, and holes in the system. The second part of the article is dedicated to analyzing the concept of antagonism and highlighting the tensions between anthos, demos, polis and politics. Then, the article refers to class struggle as the core of politics by Žižek, and focuses on the concept of revolution and the role of historical subject in the process of change.</p> 2023-03-29T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Journal of University of Raparin The Obstacles of Kurdish Language (Southern Kurdistan as Example) 2023-03-04T21:19:32+00:00 Mustafa Raza Mustafa <p>The research entitled (The obstacles of Kurdish Language –Kurdistan Region of Iraq as example). In this scientific paper attempted to illustrate the significant obstacles and barriers of Kurdish language and also illustrate the prevention of development and vitality of Kurdish language in a scientific and critical manner in this part of Kurdistan as examples of the research. So it focuses on the insufficiencies of the language, in this way we might serve and protect our language. Hence we could protect our language from collapse and death. It is needed that all of people and those who are related to this case could have a serious attention on our language; the attention could be in personal attempt or a group attempt either in a formal way or in an informal way to serve the language.&nbsp;&nbsp;</p> 2023-03-29T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Journal of University of Raparin The Effect of the Social Responsibility Theory in forming Public Interest Journalism 2023-03-06T16:39:46+00:00 Arshad Khaleel Asaad Nazakat Hussein Hama Saeed Araz Ramazan Ahmad <p>This research focuses on the theory of social responsibility in forming public interest journalism which is currently considered to be a new and effective form of journalism, it has a predominant impact on public interest, common welfare, and serving humanity. This research is a scientific endeavor to understand the social responsibility theory of the media, and to what extent media organizations adhere to this responsibility, to create public interest journalism.</p> <p>The research highlights the important aspects of public interest journalism, including social responsibility, ethics, and professionalism, in addition to the role of investigative journalism in forming public interest journalism.</p> <p>The research aims to show the level of reliance on social responsibility, its relation, and its influence in forming public interest journalism. It identifies to what extent adherence to social responsibility, and its association, contributes to raising and instructing professional journalists to build public interest journalism. Moreover, illustrates to what degree social responsibility results in complying with the principles of work ethics in creating public interest journalism.</p> <p>The results of this study have shown that the theory of social responsibility has a positive impact on Furthermore, the results indicate that theory of social responsibility is a theory of reform and gives journalists the ability to work in terms of professionalism and to follow the ethical principles of media work to serve the public interest. This theory is not opposed to the positive values of societies, the values the media promulgates for is for bringing the world's nations closer, or the values that demand independence and an end to war (Cold War). This theory believes in the independence of rights and duties of the society and according to, the principles of this theory society should feel this freedom. This means that media institutions should be professional, and ethical, and show legal responsibility towards society.</p> 2023-03-29T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Journal of University of Raparin Grammatical Case in Pshdar Sub-Dialect 2023-03-12T15:13:33+00:00 Khalid Haji Mohammed Sajidah Abdulla Farhadi <p>This research is entitled (Grammatical case in Pishdar Sub-Dialect). Grammatical case is one of the important syntactic features in Pishdar Sub-Dialect, case is a property of noun phrases, expressed as a result of their relationship to other parts of the sentence, which in some languages is represented by a morpheme and appears at the end of a noun phrase, indicating the role played by the noun phrase in the sentence and is known as morphological case, but in some languages ​​the morphological sign does not appear and is known as the abstract case. The concept of the abstract case is an important part of the theory of Government and binding, which Chomsky and his followers have studied. under the title of case theory. According to the theory, abstract case is a universal phenomenon and exists in every language. There is no morphological case in Central Kurdish, but it is seen in some Sub- dialects belonging to Central Kurdish, such as Pishdar, Mukri, Khoshnawti and Rawandz. In this research, the grammatical case, types and characteristics of Pishdar dialect are analyzed.</p> 2023-03-29T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Journal of University of Raparin Mitanni - Hittite Treaties During the Period (1480-1270 BC) 2023-03-12T22:27:20+00:00 Reber Jaafar Ahmed Mayi Imad Shakir Ahmed <p>This research deals with the Mitanni - Hittite treaties during the period (1480-1270 BC), those treaties that had a great impact on the political and economic situation on the two kingdoms, especially the Mitanni kingdom. Where the Mitanni were at the beginning of the formation of their kingdom and during the period of the treaties, in a position of power so that it can be said that this type of treaties between two parties takes the form of equivalent treaties. However, the political conditions of the Mitanni kingdom have changed and its conditions have become bad as a result of the internal divisions between the ruling family, which in turn led to the pursuit of each of its princes wishing to ascend the throne to search for an ally against the other princes, in order to reach power. Therefore, treaties were made with neighboring powers hostile to the Mitanni kingdom, such as the Hittite kingdom as well as the Assyrian kingdom. The result of these treaties was that the Mitanni kingdom lost its complete independence and became subject to dependency. The final result was that it was completely eliminated by the Assyrians .</p> 2023-03-29T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Journal of University of Raparin Consensus Claims, Problems in Theory and Implimenting, and Obstacles to Ijtihad and Renewing 2023-03-14T13:47:29+00:00 Bakhtyar Najm Alddin Shams Alddin <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; It is clear to islamic scholars that consensus (eijmaa) has an important place within the sources of islamic legislations, as our scholars counted it as one of the evidences which they agreed upon, and made it the third evidence after Quraan and the Sunna. So they talked about it in detail, especially in theoretical aspects of its definition and proves, its conditions, its types, the validity of each type, the judge on who violates the consensus, and so on.</p> <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;On the practical side, we find that the jurisprudential books are full of claims of its unanimity in hundreds of issues. While a professional reader and investigator of these issues finds it difficult to apply the theoretical conditions of consensus to the collected consensus issues. It is a must in its definition that the some of all scholars in one era have the same opinion, also scientifically known that the defined and its definition must be equal and neither of them must not be more specific or more general than the other, that is to say, it must be a collective interdiction, inclusive of all members of the defined. if we apply the fundamental definition of consensus to the codified collections of Islamic jurisprudence, we will see that there is inequality between the definition and the issues included in the true definition of consensus. The investigation reveals to us that hundreds of issues on which consensus is claimed are the opinion of most of the scholars and not everyone of them.</p> <p>Hence the idea of this research has developed to solve some issues including:</p> <p>- The distinction between fundamental consensus and jurisprudential consensus. With explaining of the proportion of righteousness in the consensuses that have been proven in the jurisprudential heritage.</p> <p>- Statement of the effects of excessive claims of consensus on the Islamic community. also clarifying the disadvantages of excess and neglection in these claims on Ijtihad and innovation, and thus on the flexibility of islamic legeslations (Shariaa) and its harmony with every time and place.</p> <p>- Statement of the problems related to practicing consensus according to the theory of islamic legeslations principles and to clarify that its impossible to practice these principles on consensus. also to propose alternatives to consensus, finally the most important results presented in the conclusion. only God is always the conciliator of righteousness.</p> 2023-03-29T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Journal of University of Raparin The Analysis of Hydro-Morphometric Characteristics of Qaladze Basin 2023-03-14T20:37:31+00:00 Bakhtiar Osman Khzr <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; &nbsp;The research attempts to identify the fundamental standard characteristics of the Qaladze River Basin's water drainage network. One of the permanent rivers in Pishdar district's east, Sulaymaniyah Governorate's northeast, and Kurdistan Region's east. The most notable topographic elements that constituted the morphometric characteristics throughout the Pleistocene era were the most prominent geomorphological processes, most notably stream orders, the most extensive streams, drainage density, bifurcation ratio, texture ratio, and meandering coefficient. In the main Qaladze basin (6) stream orders, total number of streams is up to (358) tributaries, and their full-lengths are (235.56 km). The drainage density was attained (2 km/km2). In contrast, the numerical drainage density was obtained (3,03 streams/km2), the bifurcation ratio ranged between (2-7.22), the texture ratio was implemented (5.21 km), the meandering coefficient was struck (1.2), the extraction and flood coefficient was accomplished (8.2), and the runoff speed reached (3.9 m/s).</p> 2023-03-29T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Journal of University of Raparin Sculptural Beautifying Speech in the Squares of the Kurdistan Region 2023-03-24T10:43:27+00:00 Hamid Ahmad Sadq Azad Jamal Tahir <p>The study, entitled "Sculpture Beauty in the Fields of the Kurdistan Region," found and selected sculptural samples that have been stabilized in the fields of the Kurdistan Region, and analyzed the samples to determine whether they are the bearers of a sculpture. The research consists of four sections, the first part consists of the theoretical framework in which the problem of research and the importance of research and the boundaries of research and the concepts of ministries are addressed, the second part consists of three layers, the first layer (explaining the meaning and concept of beauty). (Explaining the concept of discourse in the modeling pantheon) The third layer consists of (an introduction to the field in the stages of ancient history and modern times). The stabilized ones, which are numbered (2), can be described by the method of descriptive analysis. Results and conclusions of recommendations, suggestions and sources) of the study.</p> 2023-03-29T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Journal of University of Raparin Repercussions of Psychological Warfare in the Kurdish Party Newspapers 2023-03-24T11:56:20+00:00 Bahroz Ali Rasul Omer Ahmed Remadhan <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; This research is part of the descriptive studies. It describes (psychological warfare) in the discourse of Kurdish political parties press.One of the most important goals of this research is to show the psychological warfare inside the political parties press. This research gets to a conclusion of the fact that(disinformation ) is at the top of psychological warfare which is about %41. The second one is (propaganda) which is about %27.&nbsp; And (Rumors) comes as the third one by %26.On the other hand, the research shows the sample studies that&nbsp;&nbsp; have been used as psychological warfare against activists and protesters. On the other hand, during election campaigns the Kurdish political party’s newspapers have used the psychological warfare against one another. The psychological warfare has been used against all the political parties that have been part of the government or an opposition.</p> 2023-03-29T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Journal of University of Raparin Doubt in the Hadith of Jabir, May God Be Pleased with him, about the Lengthening of Recitation Prayer in Sahih Al-Bukhari 2023-03-25T14:03:33+00:00 Abdulmuttaleb Zewar Mohammed Sardar hamadameen ibrahim <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; The Sunnah is the second source of Islamic legislation, and Sahih al-Bukhari is the most correct book after the Holy Qur’an, and the correct mosque still needs to be taken care of and served more.</p> <p>The Sahih Mosque contains words about which the narrators doubted, and they –that is, those words - need a hadith study to arrive at the conclusion that the doubts contained in some of the words are not defamatory in the hadiths of Sahih al-Bukhari.</p> <p>This research studied the doubt contained in the hadith of Jaber, may God be pleased with him, about the lengthening of the reading in prayer in Sahih al-Bukhari. The bug.</p> <p>In the second topic: he first cited the text of the hadith, a chain of narrators and a text, and he produced it in a detailed explication, and clarified the strange words in the hadith.</p> <p>Then he collected the hadith methods from the sources of the Prophetic Sunnah, then identified the word from which doubt occurred to the narrator, then compared the narrations to determine the course of the hadith, to find out who narrated the hadith with certainty and who narrated it with doubt.</p> <p>Then search and search for those who had doubts, and translate it in detail, then talk about the implications of the narration from the jurisprudential point of view.</p> <p>The researcher concluded through the research that the doubt contained in this hadith does not undermine the authenticity of the hadith, and the narrator’s doubt leads to an increase in caution and precaution in the transmission of the noble Prophet’s hadith as it is without addition or subtraction, or alteration, change, or distortion.</p> 2023-03-29T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Journal of University of Raparin Children's Theatre and Achieving Educational Goals in Schools 2023-03-25T14:44:56+00:00 Nabaz Esmail Kamal <p>The most crucial aspects of community development، which connect to the future of each community's function and its future، are education and learning steps. In order for their correctness and stability to guarantee a good living for people and serve people، nations determine the fields of theater، education، and learning as well as the level of cultural and civil understanding that is to come. Children's theatrical development has always been at a low level in the Kurdistan Region due to ongoing occupation and abuses of sovereignty، and this weakness is increasingly apparent between 2003 and 2021. even while its justifications are altering. We will discuss the forerunners and goals of the development of children's theater since the Greek era as a source based on resources in this study. We will also analyze the essential elements of children's theatre and significant educational pathways، as well as different types of children's theatre and their effects on children، the circumstances of writing drama texts، the role، and responsibilities of the director's teacher in how to deal with performances and presentations، as well as s presenting some findings regarding children's theater and the impact of punctuality.</p> 2023-03-29T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Journal of University of Raparin Water problems in Dukan Dam 2023-03-26T00:51:49+00:00 Saman Yasin Awrahman Hallat Rasheed Abdullah <p>Dukan Dam is located in the northeastern Kurdistan Region, 65 km northwest of the Sulaimani province center. It is divided into districts (Dukan, Pishdar, Ranya). In terms of Astronomical site, it is located between the two circles of latitude (36° 14' 00'') and (35° 57' 00'') north and the two longitudes (44° 04' 00'') and (44° 45' 00'') in the east.</p> <p>&nbsp;To the east is Mount Sara in the Charmawan mountain range, in the north, the Assos Mountain Range, and Mount Kosrat is located in the south.&nbsp; Ranya city is located in the east. The towns of (Qaladze, Sangasar and Zharawa) are located in the eastern and northeastern parts of the lake. Its highest point is 516 meters above sea level.</p> <p>The area of ​​the dam is (270km2). It is the largest dam in the Kurdistan Region in terms of area and volume. It has a capacity of 7 billion cubic meters of water, of which 0.7 billion cubic meters are dead.</p> <p>The average rainfall was 594.6 mm. The average annual temperature is 21°C, and the yearly range is 34.7°C. Environmental pollution caused by humans on Dukan Dam is high, due to the mixing of sewage water from cities and towns that fall into the watershed of Dukan Dam as well as natural factors such as the rock composition of the area and floods. In this research, we emphasize the environmental issues of Dukan Dam, which are related to the natural and human problems that have been created for the dam or the dam has created for the place where it is built, in terms of water, floods, evaporation and other types of climate components, such as water, organisms, floods, evaporation and other types of weather, in terms of quantity and quality, water pollution is obvious in the dam and has damaged water and fish resources.</p> 2023-03-29T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Journal of University of Raparin Perspectives of Academic Faculties toward Studying Gender in Media Departments 2023-03-29T01:32:34+00:00 Dunya Salahdin Mirdan <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; Gender as a subject for study in the academic sphere gave importance and characteristics to the department that will be studied in. The main purpose of this research is to determine the importance of gender studies in media departments, in the public and private universities and colleges in the Kurdistan Region. Therefore, the main purpose of this research is to present the importance of gender studies as an independent subject in media departments. The researcher has attempted to discuss the importance of gender subject as an independent material in media departments in public and private colleges and universities in the Kurdistan Region, using a scientific quantitative and qualitative methods. The researcher has reached several conclusions: among all media departments (12 departments) in public and private universities and colleges in the Kurdistan Region, only one department is teaching gender as an independent subject. The issue of gender is unfamiliar, unfamiliar and not seriously considered. Gender is not considered as a necessary subject for some faculty members in these departments. However, proper understanding of the concept of gender in the academic setting itself is also complex and requires a scientific and objective understanding by academics and faculties. University teachers' understanding of the importance of gender and its philosophy along with their views on this issue, is of inevitable importance and needs to be considered.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> 2023-03-29T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Journal of University of Raparin