Journal of University of Raparin <header class="major"> <h3 align="right">&nbsp;</h3> </header> University of Raparin en-US Journal of University of Raparin 2410-1036 The Reality of School Theater Activities in Basic Education Schools in The City of Erbil and Ways to Develop it From The Viewpoint of Teachers and Specialized Supervisors <p>The aim of the research is to reveal the reality of school theater activities in basic education schools in the city of Erbil and ways to develop it from the point of view of art education teachers, and specialized supervisors. The descriptive-analytical approach was followed as a research methodology according to the nature of its subject and objectives. The research community consisted of (370) teacher of the art education, and (16) specialized supervisors in the city center of Erbil, and the research sample included (74) teacher of the art education and (9) supervisors, who were deliberately chosen from the research community according to their field of specialization. The research tool consisted of two questionnaires, one of which was open to reveal the reality of the school theater activities, and the other was closed. It included (27) items as a problems and (36) items as a suggestions for developing activities. Its apparent validity and reliability were extracted by re-application, and after applying the two questionnaires in their final form at the original research sample. The data were statistically processed using the weighted mean equation and the percentile weight, and from most prominent results of the research as a problems are the following:</p> <p>1- Looking at the subject of art education and its theatrical activities at a lower level compared to the rest of the study subjects prescribed by the rest of the teaching staff in basic education schools, as well as the students’ families and society in general.</p> <p>2- Weak interest in art education and school theater activities from the responsible and relevant authorities in the Ministry of Education and the General Directorate of Education in Erbil Governorate.</p> <p>3- Weak interest in School Theater activities by the administrations in basic education schools in Erbil city.</p> <p>Among the most prominent suggestions to development the theatrical activities at schools are the following:</p> <p>A- Establishing or providing suitable halls for artistic activities, including school theater activities and their requirements in basic education schools in the city of Erbil.</p> <p>B- Allocating appropriate and sufficient lessons for the art of School Theater and its activities within the lessonss of art education subject prescribed in basic education schools.</p> <p>The research ended with a set of conclusions, recommendations and suggestions as a titles of other researchs.</p> Ahmed Abubakr Mustafa Jawad Nimat Hussein Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of University of Raparin 2022-12-29 2022-12-29 9 5 1 31 10.26750/Vol(9).No(5).Paper1 The Role of E-Learning in Addicting to Electronic Tools Among Primary Students From the Perspective of Parents <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; The aim of this research is to identify the role of E-learning in addicting to electronic tools among primary students from the view of parents. Moreover، it is to recognize the variance in the level of addiction to electronic tools through the variable of mother and father as individuals. For this purpose، researchers prepared a measurement depending on a research measure by (Al-Swilmi، 2014)، which is comprised of 27 items. After extracting the specializations of the psychological measurement (validity and reliability)، the sample number of 113 parents were selected randomly، using T.TEST for one sample and two independent samples. The results were as follows: Generally، from a parent's view، they were not addicted to electronic tools، and it did not differ according to (father and mother) individually، but it revealed that E-Learning played a role in addicting these students to electronic tools، and consistent with the results، several recommendations and suggestions were presented.</p> Hazhar Qadir Ibrahim Lya Hassan Mhamad Aram Muhamad Saed Sivan Omer Esmael Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of University of Raparin 2022-12-29 2022-12-29 9 5 32 52 10.26750/Vol(9).No(5).Paper2 Theoretical Analysis of the U.S. Foreign Policy Towards Kurds in Syria After 2011 <p>The United States' new foreign policy, which includes abandoning America's Kurdish friends and a new strategy on how the US should execute military interventions, as well as the "America First" ethos, has triggered a humanitarian and military catastrophe for Syrian Kurds. Despite the prevalence of study on American strategy in Syria and towards Syrian Kurds, there is a noticeable lack of comprehensive research explaining and evaluating the growing connections. This paper argues that deciphering these patterns necessitates a deep understanding of regional politics and a thorough engagement with the vast IR research.&nbsp; In this context, it is essential to look at the nature, limitations, and constraints of the Kurdish-US relationship, which is the Kurds' most powerful ally. For the present study, a theoretical framework is chosen to analyse US foreign policy comprehensively. This is a qualitative research report based on a case study. The case for this paper is the United States' foreign policy toward Syrian Kurds, as seen through several international theories, particularly realism and liberalism. The suggested study aims to explain why the US overlooked Syrian Kurds at the start of the Syrian crisis, why the US worked with and backed Syrian Kurds or SDF till 2019, and why the US abandoned or deserted the Syrian Kurds after a foreign policy shift. To sum up, scholarly reports show mixed results, with some claiming that the US decision to abandon Syrian Kurds was well-informed. In contrast, others suggest that if the decision is made without caution, it will do more harm than good to America's long-term ally, who played a critical role in the fight against the Islamic State of Iraq and Syria.</p> Zainaddin Mawlood Khidhir Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of University of Raparin 2022-12-29 2022-12-29 9 5 53 71 10.26750/Vol(9).No(5).Paper3 Development of Political Islam in Turkey)1983-2007) <p>Political Islam in Turkey is a vital and profound issue for the Islamic world and the Western world. In this study, we return to the era of Ozal, in which political Islam came to the fore in politics and power. Then, after this era, political Islam entered into a political, legal, and parliamentary war with the state and the army. Although they did not win the war, they made use of it as an experience. At the beginning of the twenty-first century, they managed to enter the arena of competition with a new program, a new party, and a new leader. They have proven their self again in the modern history of Turkey. What is meant by this study is that political Islam in Turkey has been gradually entrenched at every stage, and they have also managed to reach the pinnacle of power by taking advantage of Turkish democracy and secularism. On the other hand, despite the failure of the secular trend in this struggle with political Islam, there is still a shadow of the Kemalist regime and the secular regime over Turkey, which gave them the strength to continue its struggle with the Islamists.</p> Hersh Abdullah Hamakrim Shaima Saeed Hamlaw Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of University of Raparin 2022-12-29 2022-12-29 9 5 72 91 10.26750/Vol(9).No(5).Paper4 The Role of Natural Hierarchy in Obtaining Happiness in Faraby's View <p>True happiness in Farabi’s vision, in terms of nature and of itself, is a great and promising virtue and it is the main objective in the life of the Virtuous City and the value of it results in lasting permanently as an objective and never becomes a mean. The project and basis of Farabi’s view relates to the establishment of significant means and methods for happiness attainment. The first assistive mean is to gather around the structure of the city and society. He views society as an organic system, though they differ in duty and rank, but they own cooperation basis between them. The flawless image of society is revealed only when it is ruled over by the president of an active mind. The conclusion of combined means brings about the foundation of the Virtuous City which is the only place for happiness attainment.</p> <p>The absence of collaboration, cooperation and hierarchy, lack of active mind of the president, and ignorance towards the true happiness by the individuals, are those features which Farabi counts as the contraries to the Virtuous City, the objective of this process is to prove that no city and crowd is capable of being happy if they do not place the ways and nature of the Virtuous City to their being.</p> <p>Available research by using descriptive and analytical method for the purpose of Faraby's view on obtaining happiness and a desirable society through simile and finding the connection between the city of goodness and and human nature to be represented, and for this, it will reach the conclusion that human gathering in the framework of the society, considering the natural hierarchy, and cooperation for providing happiness.</p> Mohammed Hussein Saeed Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of University of Raparin 2022-12-29 2022-12-29 9 5 92 112 10.26750/Vol(9).No(5).Paper5 Geographical Analysis For Proposed Dams in Sulaimaniyah Province and Their Impacts on Water Necessary Supply <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; The goal of this research is to geographical analysis for revelation of water necessary in Sulaimaniyah governorate for different economic and human sectors in all province districts, and revelation the role and effect of proposed dams on the water supply in Sulaymaniyah. In this research we used inductive method with analysis and comparative methods. The research has got some results, like these: the proposed dams can supply (%72.64) of water necessary for different sectors in sulaymaniyah province, so that the proposed dams will significant role to water supply for sulaymaniya residents. Rainfall fluctuation and decrease ground surface runoff and underground water in Sulaymaniyah now, building proposed dams will necessary in the future, because these dams can collection rain water and decrease using underground water, there for its impacts on decrease water crisis and drought and their can revitalize agriculture sector. In the districts of sulaymaniyah province have differences on water reservoirs in proposed dams comparative with water necessaries. we have differences from district to another, some districts have further water balance, some districts have included water balance border and some districts are in the non-balance group.</p> Shaswar Mohammed Mahmood Ata Mohammad Aladdin Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of University of Raparin 2022-12-29 2022-12-29 9 5 113 144 10.26750/Vol(9).No(5).Paper6 The Role of the Movement Is Hidden from Establishing the Position in Arabic Grammar <p><strong>&nbsp; </strong>The echo of the grammatical melody continued in the recitation of the Almighty’s saying: “God is innocent of the polytheists and His Messenger” [al-Tawbah: 3] They restricted grammar to knowledge of the movement of the end of words, and the care of movements remained their preoccupation and the focus of their attention until they determined the function of a word in the text and its significance with the type of movement that appears at the end of that word, and this is the correctness in most of the structures of Arabic speech, But this interest turned away from its goal, and became a sign of the grammarians’ ingenuity in presenting interpretations and narrating opinions in the explanation and explaining the reason for the movement of some of the structures mentioned in the speech of the Arabs, but it was sometimes tainted by the distance from the spirit of language and strangeness in mentioning interpretations and arbitrariness in reasoning, as the Arabic language whale A group of words that diminished the role of the movement in approving its function due to the specificity of those words, and there is no doubt in that. On the contrary, as the opposite of logic is that defining the function is complicated by the type of movement; And how not? And functions more than the three inflectional movements.</p> <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; We have observed issues in Arabic grammar that occupied a wide area of ​​the attention of the early grammarians, so they made a great effort in extracting and interpreting them and showed proficiency and mastery in listing the permissible and potential faces for each issue. There is a star in it that urged us to reconsider many interpretations, interpretations and conclusions that we think are far from the spirit of the language and the purpose of the speaker. We also noted the shortcomings of the movement's role in defining the function in most of the issues that witnessed a plurality of the movement and the same function. In the following pages, we will present some of them in three sections: the first: the variation in the action of letters and the compatibility of meaning, the second: the implementation and cancellation of letters and the meaning is one, and the third: the change of movement and the stability of meaning.</p> Shaima Rashid Mohammed Alzangana Abdul Rahman Aziz Mustafa Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of University of Raparin 2022-12-29 2022-12-29 9 5 145 159 10.26750/Vol(9).No(5).Paper7 Geographical Distribution of Soil in Shiwasor-Akhgler Valley Basin and its Characteristics <p>The soil varies clearly in its chemical and physical characteristics depending on the conditions and factors that make up it, such as raw materials (mother rocks), climatic conditions, vegetation, topography, time, etc. because the study area is located in the semi-mountainous region, its soil was formed under semi-dry climatic conditions and complex topographical situation, which is reflected in the soil characteristics of the Shiwasor-Akhgler Valley Basin.</p> Snur Ahmed Rasul Ahmed Yaseen Ali Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of University of Raparin 2022-12-29 2022-12-29 9 5 160 177 10.26750/Vol(9).No(5).Paper8 Enlightenment Thinking and its Consequences in Contemporary Kurdish Poetry <p>Enlightenment as an intellectual concept is the result of the perspectives of many thinkers and philosophers in the western world. It has become the source of deep change in the western culture and thinking; it has also come into the eastern world and culture. Eventually, the influence of that movement arrived at the Kurdish literature and can easily be found in the works of Kurdish poets and authors. They dealt with the phenomenon in accordance with their understanding in Kurdish poems. Although the influence of the phenomenon has not reflected in the minds of the Kurdish poets, due to the inappropriate conditions of our nation, as is the case in the western world, the Kurdish poets could take advantage from the various aspects of phenomenon and renew the content of the Kurdish poetry. Enlightenment poets played an effective role in raising the awareness of Kurdish society, especially those who were aware of the innovation movement in the world and had a deep understanding of the conditions of the Kurdish society. Hence, poetry became a moving and a educating message. As a result, we see that the content of the poetry of that period has experienced a remarkable change.</p> Lanja Abdurahman Ghareeb Mohhammed Amin Abdullah Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of University of Raparin 2022-12-29 2022-12-29 9 5 178 203 10.26750/Vol(9).No(5).Paper9 Classification of Abstract Noun and The Productive of its Affixes in Kurdish Language <p>This research is entitled “ Classification of abstract noun and the productive of its affixes in Kurdish language”. The importance of this study shows that before in linguistic sources, any noun that was not concrete was named abstract noun and was not classified more, but this research tries to classify the abstract nouns according to the concept and field they reach. It is also an attempt to demonstrate the rate of activity and productivity of the affixes that make abstract noun and a role in enriching the Kurdish language dictionary. The research consists of two section: the first section except for the introduction and summary theoretically talked about the concept, term and definition of the productivity. Also, in general the nouns and types of nouns are mentioned in terms of existence (concrete and abstract), then the types of abstract noun are classified. In the second section, practically the productive of the affixes in creating the types of abstract nouns are presented examples. Finally, the results and list of references are shown.</p> Sherzad Saeed Sedeeq Omer Salih Khdir Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of University of Raparin 2022-12-29 2022-12-29 9 5 204 228 10.26750/Vol(9).No(5).Paper10 Perceptions of Postgraduate Students Towards the use of Kahoot as A Formative Assessment Tool in an English Language Course <p>One of the transformations of the past decade has been the rapid and increased integration of the Internet and technological tools, particularly mobile-assisted learning (MAL) and gamification tool such as Kahoot, into EFL classrooms from across the world. Studies have shown that the gamified elements of such tools as Kahoot can enhance language learning performance and be utilised as influential teaching and assessment tools in language classrooms. Nevertheless, its application is yet quite new to EFL Kurdish classrooms; as observed, very few university instructors employ it. Furthermore, the acceptance of technological tools in general and Kahoot in particular by students and their perceptions towards its use is deemed significant due to its strong correlation with the overall language learning performance. Kahoot has been extensively researched in various educational contexts. Nevertheless, no study has reported students' perceptions of its use in EFL Kurdish classes. Therefore, the present study aimed at tackling Kurdish postgraduate students' perceptions towards implementing Kahoot in a six-week English language course and detecting their performance on Kahoot throughout the course, as well as showing gender differences in their perceptions. The study adopted a 24-item questionnaire on a 5-point Likert scale embedded in it two open-ended questions and students’ grades in the course. Almost all the students accepted the application and reported positive perceptions of using Kahoot in the course. However, Kahoot might lead to frustration and torpor on the students' part if not timed and designed correctly.</p> Hero Said Mohammed Nuri Sarkawt Muhammad Qadir Rfaai Rashid Mohammed Alan Hoshyar Azaldin Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of University of Raparin 2022-12-29 2022-12-29 9 5 229 251 10.26750/Vol(9).No(5).Paper11 Kurdish EFL Students’ Perceptions about the use of E-learning During the Covid-19 Lockdown <p>The outbreak of the coronavirus (Covid-19) in December 2019 caused the total closure of educational institutions and led to stop of the face-to-face teaching for a long time. Therefore, e-learning was applied as an alternative teaching method to continue education. However, little is known about students’ perceptions on the use and acceptance of e-learning implemented during the Covid-19 lockdown, especially in the Kurdistan region of Iraq. Hence, this study aims to explore the university students’ perceptions about the use of e-learning during the lockdown in the Kurdistan region of Iraq. In so doing, a mixed-method approach is utilised to collect both quantitative and qualitative data from 50 Kurdish EFL students. The results of data analysis revealed that more students show positive perceptions than those who hold neutral and negative perceptions about the use of e-learning during the lockdown.</p> Hadi Hussein Haji Hawraz Qader Hama Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of University of Raparin 2022-12-29 2022-12-29 9 5 252 263 10.26750/Vol(9).No(5).Paper12 The Media Organization Financing Resource in the Kurdistan Region <p>Media economics in general and financial resources of media organizations in particular is one of the most recent economic science research topics in the areas of media and economics. In particular, after the development of media tools, media production, and message formulation in media market, the rise of expense in the Kurdistan Region of Iraq, and increase of media audience’s demands led to media organizations search for more financial resources to maintain and develop their position in the competitive market and increase profit through media production and message formulation. In this work, the new financial resources in the world’s media market are outlined, and the financial resources of the media organizations in the Kurdistan Region of Iraq in the framework of media economics are explored. Each financial resource is categorized with its level of dependency in the organizations. 8 media organizations, that are television channel, radio, digital media, and pare surveyed For this aims the researcher use description method and depend on survey with selecting 8 media organization in the Kurdistan region, for those who own television and radio channel, at the same time has digital and print media.Also this article chose ‘10’ management from high managing.Due to this research aims to explore media financing resource by media organization in the Kurdistan Region. So it concludes with some results. Which the main one is the media organization in the Kurdistan Region cannot success in getting benefit from economic resource to gain income.only %37.5 of the resource of economic resource is available in media marketing. Furthermore in the Kurdistan Region private own is come as the first media economic resource and the level of dependence on media owner as media resource is %61 to%70. Key Words: Media Economics, Media Organization, Financing Resource, Kurdistan Region.</p> Nazakat Hussein Hamasaeed Karwan Abdulla Mohamed Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of University of Raparin 2022-12-29 2022-12-29 9 5 264 296 10.26750/Vol(9).No(5).Paper13 Employing Heritage in the Articles of Mikhail Naima an Analytical Descriptive Study <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; The subject of employing heritage in the articles of &nbsp;Mikhail Naima is one of the theme that ought to be considered and examined. Because of its significance in creating the literary content, particularly the articles from it, and give it with the sources of strength that guarantee its success and immortality. The one who carefully considers the texts of Mikhail Naima Al-Maqaliyah will discover that the phenomenon of utilizing heritage texts, especially literary and historical ones, is strikingly show in his papers, as This phenomenon contributed to building the text of the articles, and supplementing it effectively, which worked to remember other literary, historical texts and dissolve them in the new text, concurring to the writer’s point of view , experience and incident in producing and designing works. For everyone looking for righteousness in himself and his community.</p> <p>&nbsp;&nbsp; &nbsp;The research is based on the employment of &nbsp;literary and historical heritage in the articles of Mikhail Naima consist of two sections. The first dealt with the employment of literary heritage, and divided into two parts: poetic heritage and prose heritage. As for the second topic, it was devoted to the study of historical heritage and a section to the study of historical figures and heritage places. The research concluded with the conclusion of our record. It contains the most important findings of the investigation.</p> Ismael Abdalla Ahmed Kasem Mohammad Abed Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of University of Raparin 2022-12-29 2022-12-29 9 5 297 312 10.26750/Vol(9).No(5).Paper14 The Influence of the Pragmatism Philosophy on Linguistics <p>Pragmatism, a philosophical approach that originally appeared in the USA, places its evaluation of the validity of ideas on concepts such as "action" and "benefit". The pioneers of this philosophy believe that the basis of human thought and knowledge should be traced back to the notion of benefit. Language, according to John Dewey, is a tool for representing thought and meaning. Accordingly, the language must be loaded with utilitarian ideas and be a tool for creating a practical and realistic effect. That is, pragmatism was concerned with the purpose of language use and its significance at the expense of its form.</p> <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; It is worth mentioning that some other branches in linguistics were born from pragmatism, such as pragmatics, which deals with language in use, semiotics, applied linguistics, behaviorism, speech act theory, and discourse analysis.</p> <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; All of these branches of linguistics are concerned with the actual and utilitarian aspects of language and investigate language in terms of usage and conditions of use. This paper is an attempt to highlight how these linguistic fields are affected by the philosophy of pragmatism. The research consists of two sections. In the first section, the broad outlines of the philosophy of pragmatism are examined, and in the second section, the effect of the pragmatism philosophy on these fields of linguistics is examined.</p> Hewa Ahmed Assaf Yousif Sharif Saeed Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of University of Raparin 2022-12-29 2022-12-29 9 5 313 337 10.26750/Vol(9).No(5).Paper15 Abnormal Personality Traits and Social Network Addiction Among Soran University Students ((Alternative Model for Personality Disorders According to the Fifth Diagnostic and Statistical Manual (DSM-5))) <p>The phenomenon of social network addiction has attracted the attention of many specialists and researchers as it represents a growing problem in the field of mental health based on the current evidence. Majority of the studies have tried to find out a relationship between the personality traits and the social network addiction.</p> <p>&nbsp; Most of researchers and clinicians have followed the DSM categorization, but others believe that this categorization is very general, thus, they proposed more specific alternative approach to determine abnormal personality traits. Based on this proposal, the DSM-5 has recommended researchers to carry out further investigation. Based on those facts, the aim of this study is to identify the extent to which each dimension and wich abnormal personality traits contributes to predicting social network addiction among Soran University students.</p> <p>&nbsp; For reaching the researche aim, the researchers have prepared two scales: first for measuring the social network addiction that is consists of 18 items. Second, for measuring the abnormal personality traits by the suggested alternative model in (DSM-5) and it consists of 50 items. This scales were implemented on the students of Soran University in both science and humanities, in which their number 600 students. For solving the data, the research has utilized the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS).The results demonstrate that there is a significant effect for both dimensions (Negative Affectivity and Antagonism) and seventeen out of twenty-five traits in predicting the social network addiction among Soran University students. Hence, the researcher has analyzed those results, based the study findings, some recommendations and suggestions have been provided.</p> Rusdi Ali Mustafa Hewa Abdulazeez Jameel Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of University of Raparin 2022-12-29 2022-12-29 9 5 338 370 10.26750/Vol(9).No(5).Paper16 Social Problems of Displaced Women <p>This research aims to identify the social, economic, health, psychological and housing problems that the displaced women are exposed to after displacement. The research relied on the qualitative approach in the form of interviews with the organization's questions, and a community was randomly selected, and the sample was intentionally selected in four suburbs which are, (Debaga camp - Debaga district, Qushtaba district, Ankawa district, Khabat district) in the city of Erbil, as well as two theories were applied in it, and the most important findings of the research in the end were the most important: that the majority of the displaced originally belonged to the city of Mosul and the majority of them were of Arab nationalism, and specifically they were displaced from the villages of Makhmour district. They were among the categories of married women and housewives, and the number of their family members for the majority ranged between (1-5) individuals. It is clear from the results that the majority of displaced women suffer from several problems, including financial ones, due to the husband’s illness or death - and the missing among them in particular, including their marital status from the categories (the immigrant husband), that is, they left their wives and married another woman. And the majority suffer from health problems and a state of disability in the body, especially the displaced women of Christian nationalism. Among the results, it is clear that the majority of displaced women suffer from housing problems, due to the presence of dampness and the lack of health conditions in their housing. The majority of the displaced confirmed that they do not want to return to their city, due to the lack of safety and stability in their areas of origin. At the end of the research, the researchers presented some recommendations and suggestions to address the problems of the displaced.</p> Fawzia Abdullah Mohammad Abdullah Kurshed Abdullah Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of University of Raparin 2022-12-29 2022-12-29 9 5 371 388 10.26750/Vol(9).No(5).Paper17 The Communicative Action of Habermas <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; Jürgen Habermas wants to establish the theory of communicative action, in a time where society is under influence of Instrumental mind. In other terms the authoritarian mind&nbsp; of&nbsp; the&nbsp; authoritarian&nbsp; through&nbsp; and&nbsp; capitalists&nbsp; in&nbsp; markets&nbsp; controlling companies, state authorities and the society.</p> <p>Habermas intends to visualize the theory of Communicative action. The theory of a social criticism&nbsp; that&nbsp; based&nbsp; on Anthropology, linguistics,&nbsp; ethics,&nbsp; politics,&nbsp; social principles, philosophy and&nbsp; other&nbsp; principles,&nbsp; in&nbsp; order&nbsp; to&nbsp; point&nbsp; out&nbsp; the&nbsp; characteristics&nbsp; of intellectuals socio-institutionally, that consist of restriction and limit the human and nature, treating it as means.&nbsp;&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;This theory is to serve a critical-social analyses and to hold characteristics&nbsp; of&nbsp; intellectuals&nbsp; socio-institutionally, to have the&nbsp; ability&nbsp; breaking through the intellectuals socio-institutionally, that being for ages in the western intellectuals, aiming not only the individuals open up to each other, but to reach the level of fruitful understanding, to establish a intellectuals status and only by this is able to integrate the scattered parts of society, which the communicative is a social act and aiming toward (Social integration).</p> <p>Therefore, to give a broader sense of this theory, our study presented in the following section: The Theory of Communicative Action, The role of Discourse Theory, Habermas’s Cosmopolitanism, Habermas’s Discourse Theory.</p> Nadia Omer Kakasur Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of University of Raparin 2022-12-29 2022-12-29 9 5 389 413 10.26750/Vol(9).No(5).Paper18 Subhani's Interest in Lexical Meanings and Etymology of Quran Translation/ Interpretation (1951- 1990) <p>This study explores the approach/method of Nasir Sobhani, who was one of the Kurdish scholars in the field of Quranic translation/ interpretation. Sobhani left a rich heritage in Quranic translation in three languages, namely Kurdish, Arabic and Persian. Due to the linguistic richness of his works, this study aims to probe certain linguistic aspects in his products, namely lexically and etymologically. The current study has three parts. Part one provides a brief biographical introduction to the life of Sobhani. Part two sheds light on the lexical meanings, and part three deals with etymology. According to the data analysis, it can be concluded that Sobhani, in his Quranic translation, relied heavily upon linguistics as a means of interpretation, and he differentiated between the linguistic meaning on one hand, and the Quranic meaning on the other hand. He relied on the former to investigate the latter. Thus, this approach/ method in Quranic interpretation is worthy of scholarly investigation and criticism.</p> Nueman Mohammed Almas Aras Mohamed Salh Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of University of Raparin 2022-12-29 2022-12-29 9 5 414 432 10.26750/Vol(9).No(5).Paper19 Semantic Parallelism in Love Poetry in the Umayyad Era, Analytical Study - Selected Models <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; This study, was named with (Semantic Parallelism in love Poetry in the Umayyad Era, Analytical Study - Selected Models-) tries to investigate semantic parallelism as one of the stylistic features in love poetry in the Umayyad era, where it sheds light through this technique on some of the technical aspects inherent in the content of the lyrical text and exploring its depths, drawing on the opinions of some Western critics, ancient Arab scholars and contemporary Arab researchers.</p> <p>The study examined the nature of semantic parallelism and its importance in literary and critical studies, and then went through the application of the topic of semantic parallelism to selected models of love poetry in the Umayyad era for a number of stallion poets, through two main aspects: synonymous parallelism and contralateral or congruent parallelism, in order to reveal The effectiveness of parallelism in supplementing the poetry with a number of artistic and moral characteristics and stimulating the recipient, in addition to creating a kind of moral and verbal cohesion in the creative poetic text.</p> <p>The study also dealt with semantic parallelism through all types of love Poetry in that period, and in some cases it drew illustrative charts for the purpose of clarifying the idea and ease of acceptance by the recipient.</p> Pakhshan Raheem Rasheed Mohamedamin Ali Mohamedamin Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of University of Raparin 2022-12-29 2022-12-29 9 5 433 449 10.26750/Vol(9).No(5).Paper20 The Origins of the Appeal at Abdullah Bin Massoud God Rest his Soul Through (The Al Dar Al Manthur in the Interpretation of the Adage is ) Applied Study <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; All the respected companions and especially their scholars lived during the period of the revelation of the Qur'an to the Prophet, And they were aware of all the events which the Qur'an was revealed for ,also they were aware of the time and situation of the revelation. God has been gracious and merciful to them and he had prepared them to receive this holy revelation. And they also cared about the goals of the shariat in general and They considered the reasons of this revelation, they were trying to deduce the law specific to the Qur'an and the shariat. According to the shariat they determined the solution of new events, they linked reality to the Qur'an, Because the holy message of Islam is a message that has several general and appropriate laws for all advanced and non-advanced communities, the message of God is the only message that can lead humanity to happiness And give them peace. Each of these companions had a pure heart, and the light of the message of God and the Prophet was in them. One of these esteemed companions was Abdullah Ibn Mas'ud, who was a great companion and the owner of the school) belief and understanding), he had his own reasons for deriving the laws of th Qur'an and Sunnah. He had his own reasons for inferring the laws of the Qur'an and Sunnah, including the Holy (Qur'an, the Prophetic Sunnah, accepting, inferring(.</p> Amir Ahmad Mustafa Omar Ali Muhammad Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of University of Raparin 2022-12-29 2022-12-29 9 5 450 466 10.26750/Vol(9).No(5).Paper21 The Causes of Sexual Harassment of Women at Work <p>Sexual harassment is a form of gender-based violence and discrimination that includes any explicit or implicit act of a sexual nature , that is unwelcome or undesirable, in such a way that the other person feels insulted, humiliated or threatened or fear. This study attempts to answer a basic question: Is there sexual harassment of women at work? And if so, what are the main causes? The main objective of this study is to find out the amount of sexual harassment directed against women working in all the existing institutions, For this reason, the researcher used a sample of (300) units at random to carry out the operation procedures, but after returning the forms, only (268) units admitted that they were harassed during work Therefore, the researcher applied all statistical processes to this sample, One of the most important conclusions that the researcher reached after analyzing the scale form: The majority of women who were subjected to sexual harassment were between (31-50) years old, and most of them were unmarried and married, they worked in government institutions, and the majority of them were harassed by co-workers inside the institution, Verbal harassment, such as talking about jokes and sexual stories, is one of the most common types of harassment that the majority of the sample members were subjected to, One of the most important causes of sexual harassment, as indicated by the majority of the sample, is addiction to pornographic films , One of the most important effects of sexual harassment on the victim is exposing her to fear, anxiety, and loss of confidence in herself and others, The sample members used their friends to help them get rid of the harasser as one of the methods of confrontation, and in the end, the researcher suggested carrying out intensive campaigns in order to educate all members of society about the seriousness of this phenomenon and for all existing devices and even legislators to take a serious action to confront it.</p> Zhya Abbas Qadir Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of University of Raparin 2022-12-29 2022-12-29 9 5 467 497 10.26750/Vol(9).No(5).Paper22 Identity and Language of Education in the Kurdistan Region <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; This research is intended to shed light on the problems of the Kurdish language in the Kurdistan Region, especially in the field of education and higher education. This is because we assume that in modern life, there is a great risk which threatens our cultural identity in the light of globalization that tries to weaken our natural identity and impose a unipolar cultural dominance of the English language. If in the past the responsibility lies with the enemies of the Kurdish people in crackling down on the kurdish language in the stages of the occupation, the responsibility now lies with the officials of the Kurdistan regional Government (from the Ministry of Education and the Ministry of Higher Education). Because they do not have a policy and plan related to the language, and do not put an end to the disregard of the Kurdish language and the violation of the state law and constitution. In this regard, we have tried to present different views on the language of education in the centers of education and its effects on the linguistic identity of the individual and Kurdish society. In addition, schools and education centers were classified according to languages. Finally, the importance and status of language in the process of education were analyzed in order to reach conclusions on the formulation of a current plan of the Kurdish language in the education process.</p> Azad Aziz Sleman Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of University of Raparin 2022-12-29 2022-12-29 9 5 498 517 10.26750/Vol(9).No(5).Paper23 The Necessity of Education from the Perspective of The Purposes of Islamic Law <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; Allah almighty has set us a law that takes care of all aspects of our lives and this sharia has purposes to bring interests to people and pay for them, and seeks in all ways to delight the life of humanity, and takes care of anything that is a reason for achieving these interests, and as it seeks to pay everything that leads to harm to people, this means that Islamic law does not give up purposes, and one of its purposes is educational purposes, the Islamic law seeks through education to achieve these interests, if We looked at the provisions of Islamic law, all of them have secured purposes for human education, and thus the relationship between the purposes of sharia and education is linked, the purposes urge people to stick to education and education to preserve the purposes of sharia, and the relationship between them was fairly strong if one of them was to spoil the other, for example, education can preserve religion. If we look at the purposes of Sharia, it seeks to preserve the necessities of the five (religion, soul, mind, offspring, and money). Every process that is a reason for memorising these necessities is the basis for the education process. Also, education tries to be virtues and stay away from vices, hence it agrees with the purposes of Sharia, which seeks to bring interests and pay harms. Thus, the process of education is a servant of the purposes of Islamic law and is a necessity from its perspective and also for daily life.</p> Abdulla Muhammad Abdulla Hemn Aziz Braim Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of University of Raparin 2022-12-29 2022-12-29 9 5 518 538 10.26750/Vol(9).No(5).Paper24 Qur'an education centres under the Ministry of Endowments and Religious Affairs in Kurdistan Region-Iraq The City of Erbil as a Model (its Origins - its Approach - The Need for it) <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;The aim of the study was to indicate and know the establishment of the Centers for the Education of the Holy Quran under the Ministry of Endowments and Religious Affairs in the Kurdistan region - Iraq city of Erbil, as well as to indicate the curriculum of the centers of the Archives of the Ministry of Endowments in the city of Erbil, where all the centers of al-Hafeez study at the beginning the Nuraniah base, as well as the need of the Kurdish community for these centers in terms of educational, educational, social and moral. The study found the importance of these centers in society, and their necessity as one of the educational, educational and social media, to raise the children of the Kurdish society to create the morals of the Holy Quran.</p> Fathi Qadir Mulla Ezzedine Hassan Jamil Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of University of Raparin 2022-12-29 2022-12-29 9 5 539 553 10.26750/Vol(9).No(5).Paper25 Sadism and Masochism, and Their Reflections in Muhammad Mukri's Dragon Novel’’ <p>This research is entitled "Sadism and Masochism, and Their Reflections in Muhammad Mukri's <strong><em>Dragon Novel</em></strong>’’ From this point of view, a novel in general was considered to be a literary genre, which has become a field of expression in many subjects of life. One of these fields, which is reflected in the novel is psychological diseases. In addition to this, stimuli and many other aspects psychological aspects of the characters can be seen in novel. It is important to bear in mind that Muhammad Mukri's <strong><em>Dragon Novel</em></strong> is considered to be a part of the world novels that shed light Kurdish heritage and myths including Anfal and the life of Kurdish refugees as well as the myth and reality in his novel. Besides, he talks about the psychological aspects of mythical and realistic characters in the middle of narrating. Therefore, one of the most courageous subjects in which he has given a wide range of narratives of sexual situations and deviations including the concepts of sadism and masculinity that are reflected mainly in the characters of his novel in terms of the structure and psychology. However, these deviations and sexually transmitted diseases involved in class issues and national differences that constantly have been discussed in the past and now. Based on what has been discussed above, this research is a scientific attempt that has been made to reflect these concepts and the purposes of these characters so that it can be analyzed in terms of their complexity and structure. Moreover, in the first part of the research, such concepts as sadism and masochism as well as their subtypes have been discussed. In the second part, three other different sections about the characters have been introduced respectively. Thus, the third part of the research investigates the concept of unpleasant deviation and its reflections on some of the characters.</p> Sarkawt Omer Ibrahim Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of University of Raparin 2022-12-29 2022-12-29 9 5 554 574 10.26750/Vol(9).No(5).Paper26 Quranic Deliberation Between the Different Buildings Applied Phonemic and Semantic Study <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; This study investigates phonetic, structural and lexical heterogeneities in the heterogeneous words in similar verses in the Holy Qur’an in search of phonetic and structural heterogeneity. And the nature of their voices and qualities and strength.</p> <p>Perhaps what distinguished this study from its predecessors is that it is an applied and analytical audio study in which we used modern methods and new techniques, as it is not satisfied with the structural correspondence of written vocabulary, but goes beyond that to the use of vocabulary sounds, melodies, echoes, and rhythm through (QRbarcod), so if the reader wants He was able to access the sounds and melodies of the vocabulary through his smart phone easily and in a short time. The ideas and opinions presented and the results we reached are based on old and new sources, links in YouTube and illustrations.</p> Abdurhman Aziz Mustafa Muhammad Hamad Amin Rasool Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of University of Raparin 2022-12-29 2022-12-29 9 5 575 587 10.26750/Vol(9).No(5).Paper27 The Problem of Religion in the Political Philosophy of 'Thomas Hobbes' <p> Since the name 'Hobbes' in one way or another, associated with political philosophy and the problem of power in particular, rarely comes to mind, he focused on 'religion' as a sensitive and crucial subject in political matters. The prevailing view is that it deals with the issue of power in the first place. However, if we look closely at his texts, we find a major component in his philosophical thought, which is; 'Religion'. Religion as an epistemological problem and as a political problem cannot be overcome without solving it in the political space. Because wars and political instability are often due to rivalries and conflict between religious sects and internal wars, Hobbes believes that the radical solution is based on a new organization of the relationship of religion to power. Rarely did researchers analyze the concept of religion, the motives of religiosity and its relationship to power and knowledge. Therefore, the research answers the following question: Are Hobbes' criticisms of religion and its call for absolute power, the ultimate goal and ultimate end of it? or the end is; Coexistence between religions and sects and political and social stability? From here, the research tries to prove: that his criticisms of the sects and religious rivalries were for that goal. The mental assumption of instability and chaos, which he calls the 'natural state', and the transition from a state of 'war of all against all' to stability can only take place through a social contract that guarantees coexistence and ensures that 'power' is delegated to a higher authority only. Absolute power is a means, not an end in itself. So, the coexistence between the different components of society under one roof is the framework that guides Hobbes' thought. Key words: Aristotle, religion, opposition to authorities, stability, politics.</p> Nawzad Jamal Hamafaraj Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of University of Raparin 2022-12-29 2022-12-29 9 5 588 601 10.26750/Vol(9).No(5).Paper28 Attention to the Rule of The one who was Preceded in Bowing and Did Not See the Imam/Prayer Leader. for the Scholar Ibrahim Bin Hassan Al-Ghorany 1025 AH - 1101 Studies and Commentary <p>These pages are the great scholar Ibrahim bin Hassan bin Shihab Al-Din Al-Gorani Al-Shahrazuri Al-Shahrani Al-Kurdi Al-Shafi’I’s, the great mujtahid (Scholar) and Imam. He was born in&nbsp; 1025 HD/AD and grew up and brought in pure chastity family that gave birth&nbsp; many&nbsp; great scientists. In addition to the role of his scientific family in which he grew up. He began to study the Holy Qur’an in his family, and after completing it, he began to study Arabic sciences in the presence of the greatest Scholars of his country. Then he occupied himself with studying the rational sciences, such as logic, theology, philosophy, engineering, astronomy and arithmetic. He also heard the science of hadith from of a group of scholars in different places outside of his country, such as the Levant, Egypt, the Hijaz and, especially, in both Sacred Mosque and Prophetic Mosque. He mentioned his sheikhs who were from different countries and nations and wrote a bography about everyone of them, such Safi Ahmed bin Muhammed Al-Qashashi, ِAbi Al-mawahib Ahmed bin Ali Al-sh'inawi .But he did not mention his Kurdish master's, except Mala Muhammed Sharif Al-Sidqi Al-Gorani, and The master Abdulkareem bin Mala Abibakr Al-Musannif. He also travlled to Al-Madinah Al-Monawarah, stayed there and studied at group of its scholars to take different scienes from them. His habit was when he was asked a question about any sciences that he was familiar with, he was mastered with the utmost perfection. He had many works. It was even said he had about eighty useful books and letters in the whole Islamic sciences. Such Al-hadith, exegesis,&nbsp;&nbsp; jurisprudence, theology, philosophy,&nbsp;&nbsp; Sufism, and linguistics. In this his letter stated the ruling of someone is preceded the Imam In the status of bending in prayer and the Imam believed there is not&nbsp; any prevents of it, Does his prostration is taken into consideration or not? In his answer, he stated that the certainty means doubt, it means if he has dominance that he reached the prostration that regards as prostration, otherwise, it never taken in the cansideration as prostration. He stated the imam Al-Rafie, Al-Shekh Ibn Al-Hajer and Alfariqy's opinions about the situation.</p> Akram Baiz Mohammed Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of University of Raparin 2022-12-29 2022-12-29 9 5 602 615 10.26750/Vol(9).No(5).Paper29 Language and Curriculum in Education Field <p>The study is entitled, ‘language and curriculum in education field. It stresses on how curriculum and language can impact on individuals and the changes in their behavior. The curriculum is said to be the compilation of the experience and educational activities which has multiple objectives behind. The use of curriculum is to direct and enable the individuals to progress thanks to the use of language set by authorities in diverse sectors of life. The way of constituting the language of educational texts of the coursebooks directly affects meeting the education objectives and the change in individuals’ behavior. Therefore, the role of language is seen as substantial as the role of curriculum in meeting the objectives of education.‌ Semantic conveyance, in per educational text, is considered the first step to learning. Language and curriculum are two inseparable entities in which neither one can ever stand in the absence of the other. The study consists of three chapters, some concluding points and the list of references.</p> <p>First chapter (curriculum and language) addresses the curriculum and language separately. Education philosophy, the principles of curriculum as well as the objectives of it are discussed.</p> <p>Chapter two (the curriculum and its effects) addresses the relationship between the curriculum and the student him/herself with respect to the development, directions, skills, needs and the desire for learning.</p> <p>Chapter three addresses the classification of educational and instructional objectives in education curriculum as (cognitive,…… emotional)</p> Shukur Mohammed Saleh Nareman Abdwlla Kareem Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of University of Raparin 2022-12-29 2022-12-29 9 5 616 640 10.26750/Vol(9).No(5).Paper30 The Impact of Graphic Design on Media Outlet Messages to Audiences in the Kurdistan Region - NRT as a Case <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; &nbsp;&nbsp;The content of this research is (the impact of graphic design on media outlet messages to the public in Kurdistan Region - NRT as an example).it is practical research that has taken the university lectures of media department, journalists, and graphic designers as Kurdistan Region, this study as big imports for Kurdistan Region, the importance is interpreted in terms of technological development of the era. In kurdistan region, the media agencies have exerted all their efforts to imply the powerful influence on their viewers, listners and readers. Using the varieties of graphic design, the media agencies have tried to have effects on their viewers in terms of meeting the political, economic and social goals.........etc and get benefit from graphic design as a current science development. Media outlets, following significant developments, contribute significantly to the social and political life of communities and have a significant impact on public opinion and political decision-making. If conflicts have already been conducted via military and direct confrontations, these conflicts now are resolved more in the media and through writings, the graphic design is one of the arts types that can be used today to get conflicts to the resolution point. the impact of graphic design on media outlet messages to the public in Kurdistan Region. So, the researcher is in the context of descriptive research by applying the survey tools. At the same time, in the theory, the researcher has relied on the theory of referring to media tools for the public, which is one of the prominent theories in the field of media and special to creating impacts on the audience as one of the ethnic ity of the relationship. That's why, the researcher received the selected the sample for 179 persons including the lecturers of Kurdistan Region universities, journalists, and graphic designers on purpose. For which, the researcher has certainly used the survey analysis form to achieve the research goal.</p> Bryar Jalal Maeroof Hakim Osman Hamid Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of University of Raparin 2022-12-29 2022-12-29 9 5 641 666 10.26750/Vol(9).No(5).Paper31