Perceptions of Postgraduate Students Towards the use of Kahoot as A Formative Assessment Tool in an English Language Course


  • Hero Said Mohammed Nuri Department of Translation Techniques, Erbil Technical Administrative Institute, Erbil Polytechnic University, Erbil, Kurdistan Region, Iraq.
  • Sarkawt Muhammad Qadir Department of English Language, College of Education, University of Raparin, Ranya, Kurdistan Region, Iraq.
  • Rfaai Rashid Mohammed Department of Translation Techniques, Erbil Technical Administrative Institute, Erbil Polytechnic University, Erbil, Kurdistan Region, Iraq.
  • Alan Hoshyar Azaldin Department of Translation Techniques, Erbil Technical Administrative Institute, Erbil Polytechnic University, Erbil, Kurdistan Region, Iraq.



One of the transformations of the past decade has been the rapid and increased integration of the Internet and technological tools, particularly mobile-assisted learning (MAL) and gamification tool such as Kahoot, into EFL classrooms from across the world. Studies have shown that the gamified elements of such tools as Kahoot can enhance language learning performance and be utilised as influential teaching and assessment tools in language classrooms. Nevertheless, its application is yet quite new to EFL Kurdish classrooms; as observed, very few university instructors employ it. Furthermore, the acceptance of technological tools in general and Kahoot in particular by students and their perceptions towards its use is deemed significant due to its strong correlation with the overall language learning performance. Kahoot has been extensively researched in various educational contexts. Nevertheless, no study has reported students' perceptions of its use in EFL Kurdish classes. Therefore, the present study aimed at tackling Kurdish postgraduate students' perceptions towards implementing Kahoot in a six-week English language course and detecting their performance on Kahoot throughout the course, as well as showing gender differences in their perceptions. The study adopted a 24-item questionnaire on a 5-point Likert scale embedded in it two open-ended questions and students’ grades in the course. Almost all the students accepted the application and reported positive perceptions of using Kahoot in the course. However, Kahoot might lead to frustration and torpor on the students' part if not timed and designed correctly.


Abdel Fattah, S. H., Al Haq E. M., & Ali, A. E. (2020). Using Kahoot platform for developing EFL pronunciation skills among faculty of education students. Journal of Faculty of Education, 121, 4, 1-24.

Alwadhi, A. Y. (2019). Students’ perceptions of Kahoot: An exploratory mixed-method study in EFL undergraduate classrooms in the UAE (Unpublished master thesis). The British University in Dubai, UAE.

Alawadhi, A. Y., & Abu-Ayyash, E. A. (2021). Students’ perceptions of Kahoot: An exploratory mixed-methods study in EFL undergraduate classrooms in the UAE. Education and Information Technologies, 26, 3629–3658. 639-020-10425-8

Alyaz, Y. & Genc, Z. (2016). Digital game-based language learning in foreign language teacher education. Turkish Online Journal of Distance Education, 17(4), 130-146.

Baleghizadeh, S., & Shakouri, M. (2017). Investigating the relationship between teaching styles and teacher self-efficacy among some Iranian ESP university instructors. Innovations in Education and Teaching International, 54(4), 394–402. 2015.1087329

Barrio, C. M., Muñoz-Organero, M., Soriano, J. S. (2016). Can gamification improve the benefits of student response systems in learning? An experimental study. IEEE Transactions on Emerging Topics in Computing, 4(3), 429–438.

Bicen, H., & Kocakoyun, S. (2018). Perceptions of students for gamification approach: Kahoot as a case study. International Journal of Emerging Technologies in Learning, 13(02), 72–93.

Boston, C. (2002). The concept of formative assessment. Practical Assessment, Research, and Evaluation, 8, 9, 1-4. /10.7275/kmcq-dj31

Caldwell, J. (2007). Clickers in the large classroom: Current research and best-practice tips. Life Sciences Education, 6(1), 9-20.

Cárdenas-Moncada, C., Véliz-Campos, M., & Véli, L. (2020), Game-based student response systems: The impact of Kahoot in a Chilean vocational higher education EFL classroom, Computer-Assisted Language Learning Electronic Journal, 21(1), 64-78.

Charbonneau, A. K. (2018). The effects of using Kahoot as a formative assessment in the middle school science classroom (Unpublished master thesis). Montana, State University Montana.

Chiang, H-H. (2020). Kahoot in an EFL reading class. Journal of Language Teaching and Research, 11(1), 33-44. 10.17507/jltr.1101.05

Cohen, L., Manion, L., & Morrison, K. (2000). Research methods in Education. London: Routledge.

Covos, J. S., Covos, J. F., Rodrigues, F. R., & Ouchi, J. D. (2018). The new profile of students in higher education, and the use of play games to facilitate teaching-learning. Education in Focus (Amparo), 1, 62–74.

Creswell, J. W. (2009). Research design: Qualitative, quantitative, and mixed-methods approaches (3rd ed.). Sage Publication, Inc.

Ebadi, S., & Rahimi, M. (2017). Exploring the impact of online peer-editing using Google Docs on EFL learners’ academic writing skills: A mixed methods study. Computer Assisted Language Learning, 30(8), 787–815. 2017.1363056

Hadijah, H., Pratolo, B. W., & Rondiyah, R. (2020). Interactive game Kahoot as the media of students’ vocabulary. Journal on English as a Foreign Language (JEFL), 10(1), 87–105.

Harrell, E. (2019). Kahoot! Reached 70 million unique users on its platform. Available at:

Hou, Y. (2019). Gender difference in language learning with technology. In Zaphiris P., & Ioannou A. (eds), Learning and Collaboration Technologies. Designing Learning Experiences. Lecture Notes in Computer Science, 11590. Springer, Cham. 10.1007/978-3-030-21814-0_19

Ismail, M. A. A., & Mohammad, J. A. M. (2017). Kahoot: A promising tool for formative assessment in medical education. Education in Medicine Journal, 9(2), 19–26.

Ismail, M.A. A., Ahmad, A., Mohammad, J.A. M. et al. (2019). Using Kahoot! as a formative assessment tool in medical education: a phenomenological study. BMC Medical Education, 19, 230.

Kapp, K. (2012). The gamification of learning and instruction: game-based methods and strategies for training and education. Pfeiffer, San Francisco.

Kinder, F. D., & Kurz, J. (2018). Gaming strategies in nursing education. Teaching and learning in nursing, 13(4), 212-214.

Korkmaz, S., Öz, H. (2021). Using Kahoot to improve reading comprehension of English as a foreign language learners. International Online Journal of Education and Teaching (IOJET), 8(2). 1138-1150.

Kuar, P., & Naderajan, R. (2019). Kahoot! in the English language classroom. South East Asia Journal of Contemporary Business, Economics and Law, 20(6), 49-54.

Licorish, S. A., Owen, H. E., Daniel, B. et al. (2018). Students’ perception of Kahoot!’s influence on teaching and learning. RPTEL 13, 9.

Lofti, T. M., & Pratolo, B. W (2021). Students’ perceptions toward the use of Kahoot! Online game for learning English. Ethical Lingua: Journal of Language Teaching and Literature, 8(1), 276-284.

Mahbub, M. A. (2020). Learning English mediated by Kahoot: Insights from the Indonesian EFL instructors. Journal on English as a Foreign Language, 10(2), 246-267. 23971/jeff.v10i2.1917

Malim, T., & Birch, A. (1997). Research methods and statistics. London: Macmillan.

Martins, E. R., Geraldes, W. B., Afonseca, U. R., & Gouveia, L. M. B. (2019). Using Kahoot as a learning tool. In I. Ramos, R. Quaresma, P. Silva, & T. Oliveira (Eds.), Information Systems for Industry 4.0. Lecture Notes in Information Systems and Organisation (pp. 161–169). Springer Nature Switzerland.

McDonald, S. M. (2012). Perception: a concept analysis. International Journal of Nursing Knowledge, 23(1), 2–9. 10.1111/j.2047-3095.2011.01198.x

Michos, M. (2017). Gamification in foreign language teaching. Do You Kahoot? Modern Technologies in Language Teaching, 5011-516. DOI: 10.15308/Sinteza-2017-511-516

Newby, P. (2014). Research methods for education. New York, NY: Routledge.

Nikou, S. A., & Economides, A. A. (2018). Mobile-based assessment: A literature review of publications in major refereed journals from 2009 to 2018. Computers & Education, 125, 101–119.

Nurhadianti, B. W. P. (2020). Students' perception toward the application of Kahoot! as an assessment tool in EFL class. Universal Journal of Educational Research, 8(5), 2150-2155. DOI: 10.13189/ujer.2020.080554.

Pede, J., (2017). The effects of the online game Kahoot on science vocabulary acquisition (Unpublished master thesis). Rowan University, New Jersey. 05

Plump, C. M., LaRosa, J. (2017). Using Kahoot! in the classroom to create engagement and active learning: a game-based technology solution for e-learning novices. Management Teaching Review, 2(2), 151-158.

Prensky, M. (2001). Digital native and digital immigrant part 1. On the Horizon, 9(5), 1–6.

Puentedura, R. R. (2013). SAMR: Moving from enhancement to transformation. Ruben R. Puentedura’s Weblog: Ongoing Thoughts on Education and Technology. 000095.html

Quinn, C. N. (2005). Engaging learning: Designing e-learning simulation games. San Francisco, CA: Pfeiffer/Wiley.

Roos, B., & Hamilton, D. (2005). Formative assessment: A cybernetic viewpoint. Assessment in Education: Principles, Policy & Practice, 12(1), 7-20. doi:10.1080/09695940420003338 87

Şad, S. N. & Özer, N. (2019). Using Kahoot! as a gamified formative assessment tool: A case study. International Journal of Academic Research in Education, 5(1), 43-57. DOI: 10.179 85/ijare.645584

Siegle, D. (2015). Technology: Learning can be fun and games. Gifted Child Today, 38(3), 192.

Singer, N. (2016). Kahoot app brings urgency of a quiz show to the classroom. New York Times.

Sprague, A. (2019). Using Kahoot jumble to teach paragraphing in the writing classroom. The Wisconsin English Journal.

Tóth, Á., Lógó, P., & Lógó, E. (2019). The effect of the Kahoot quiz on the student's results in the exam. Periodica Polytechnica Social and Management Sciences, 27(2), 173-179.

Wang, A. (2015). The wear out effect of a game-based student response system. Computers & Education, 82, 217–227.

Wang, A. I., & Lieberoth, A. (2016). The effect of points and audio on concentration, engagement, enjoyment, learning, motivation, and classroom dynamics using Kahoot. In T. Connolly & L. Boyle (Eds.), Proceedings of the 10th European conference on games-based learning, reading (pp. 737–748). Reading, UK.

Wang, A. I., & Tahir, R. (2020). The effect of using Kahoot! for learning – A literature review. Computers and Education, 149. 103818. compedu.2020.103818

Wang, Y-S., Wu, M-C., & Wang H-Y. (2009). Investigating the determinants and age and gender differences in the acceptance of mobile learning. British Journal of Educational Technology, 40(1), 92-118. doi:10.1111/j.1467-8535.2007.00809.x

Wichadee, S., & Pattanapichet, F. (2018). Enhancement of performance and motivation through application of digital games in an English language class. Teaching English with Technology, 18(1), 77–92.

Youhasan, P, Raheem S. (2019). Technology enabled formative assessment in medical education: a pilot study through Kahoot. Education in Medicine Journal, 11(3), 23–29. 10.21315/eimj2019.11.3.3

Yürük, N. (2019). Edutainment: Using Kahoot! As a review activity in foreign language classrooms. Journal of Educational Technology & Online Learning, 2(2), 89-101.

Zucker, L., & Fisch, A. (2019). Play and learning with Kahoot: Enhancing collaboration and engagement in grades 9-16 through digital games. Journal of Language and Literacy Education, 15(1), 1-15.



How to Cite

Mohammed Nuri, H. S. ., Muhammad Qadir, S., Mohammed, R. R. ., & Azaldin, A. H. . (2022). Perceptions of Postgraduate Students Towards the use of Kahoot as A Formative Assessment Tool in an English Language Course. Journal of University of Raparin, 9(5), 229–251.



Humanities & Social Sciences