Evaluation of Aquifer Porosity And Hydraulic Conductivity From Empirical Equations Using Geoelectrical Sounding Measurements In Piramagroon Area NE-Iraq
Application of Vertical Electrical Sounding (VES) with Schlumberger array as a low-cost technique and veritable method in groundwater exploration is more suitable for hydrogeological survey of sedimentary basins. This method is regularly used to solve a wide variety of ground water problems and hydraulic parameters. The main objective of this research therefore, is to evaluate aquifer porosity and hydraulic conductivity using the empirical equations of porosity and hydraulic conductivity with resistivity conducted in the continuation of the adjacent Sharazoor basin. For this purpose, four profiles were taken in studied area (Piramagroon district), and each profile includes five VES points of measurements. Then each VES was interpreted manually as well as by IPI2 win program for determining aquifer depth ranging from (40 m.) to (80 m.) in piramagroon district) and resistivity values range between (37.0 Ω.m) to (102 Ω.m), which are substituted in the empirical porosity-resistivity and hydraulic conductivity-resistivity equations for evaluating aquifer porosity and hydraulic conductivity of the studied area. The estimated aquifer porosity values range along the studied area range between (21%) to (39 %), and for hydraulic conductivity values range from (1 m/day) to (4 m/day), which shows the increasing of the both aquifer porosity from the top of uplifted subsurface layers underlying the piramagroon district toward both limbs according to increasing of rock fragments (gravel, pebble) and (sand sediments) and decreasing of clay content overlying upper part of Middle Tanjero Formation.
Amin A. K., 2008 : Aquifer Delineation and Evaluation of Hydraulic Parameters from Surfacial Resistivity Measurements in Sharazoor Basin, North East Iraq, Ph.D. Thesis, college of Science, Univ. of Baghdad Unpublished 181p.
Archie, G. E., 1942 : The electrical resistivity log as an aid in determining some reservoir characteristic. Trans. Am. Inst. Min. Eng., Vol. 146, PP. 54-62.
Batayneh, A. T., 2009 : A Hydrogeophysical Model of the Relationship between Geoelectric and Hydraulic Parameters, Central Jordan. Journal of Water Resource and Protection Department of Geology and Geophysics, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.
Boüwer, H. 1978 : Ground water hydrology, McGraw-Hill Book, New York, 480P.
Burnard, J., 2003 : Short note on the depth of investigation of electrical methods.
Daves, S. N., and Dewiest, R. J. M., 1966. Hydrogeology, Join wiley and Sons INC., New York.
De Block , 2013: An alternative method for estimating the porosity and the permeability of (potential) geothermal reservoirs using magnetotelluric data; A case study of the Sherwood Sandstone Group in the Lough Neagh Basin, Northern Ireland, M.Sc. Thesis, Department of Earth Sciences Utrecht University, Utrecht, The Netherlands .
Deming, D., 2002: Introduction to hydrogeology, McGraw-Hill, Higher Education, USA, 468P.
Fatoba, J. O. , Omolayo S. D., Adigun, E. O., 2014 : Using geoelectric soundings for estimation of hydraulic characteristics of aquifers in the coastal area of Lagos, southwestern Nigeria, International Letters of Natural Sciences 6, PP. 30-39.
Fetter, C. W., 1998: Applied Hydrogeology, Second Edition, Merrill Publishing Company, Columbus, Ohao, 592P.
Karim, K. H., 2004: Basin analysis of Tanjero Formation in Sulaimaniya Area, NE – IRAQ, Unpublished Ph.D Theses, Geo. Dep., College of Science, University of Sulaimaniya.
Kruseman, G. P. and De Ridder, N. A., 1994: Analysis and evaluation of pumping test data, International Institute for land reclamation and improvement. P.O. Box.45, 6700 AA Wageningen, The Netherlands, 377P.
Nelson, S. A., 2015: Groundwater (Physical Geology), Tulane University Page 1 of 11 http://www.tulane.edu/~sanelson/eens1110/groundwater.htm.
Nicaise, Y., Gerard F. A., and Flavien D., 2013: Hydrogeophysical estimation of an unconfined sandy aquifer parameters using gravimetric and geoelectrical methods, Applied Science Reports, 2 (1) : 1-9, © PSCI Publications.
Nimmo, J. R., 2004 : Porosity and Pore Size Distribution, U.S. Geological Survey, Menlo Park, CA 94025, USA, in Hillel, D., ed. Encyclopedia of Soils in the Environment: London, Elsevier, V. 3, PP. 295-303.
Odong. J., 2007: Evaluation of empirical formulae for determination of hydraulic conductivity based on grain-size analysie. Journal of American Science, 3(3), Schoole of environmental studies, China University of Geoscience, 388, Lumo road, Wuchange, Wuhan, Hubei, P. R., China.
Surfer 8.01, Golden software inc., 2002: Surfer mapping system, 14th street, Golden Colorado.
Sri Niwas, and Lima O.A.L., 2003: Aquifer Parameter Estimation from Surface Resistivity Data. Ground Water 41 (1), PP. 95 – 99.
Sri Niwas, and Muhammed C., 2012 : Equation estimation of porosity and hydraulic conductivity of Ruhrtal aquifer in Germany using near surface geophysics. Elsevier, Journal of Applied Geophysics 84, PP. 77–85.
SYSCAL Jr. Switch –72, 2002: One and Two dimenssion Resistivity- meter system, IRIS – France.
Todd, D. K. and Mays, L. W., 2005: Groundwater Hydrology. John Wiley and Sons, Inc., PP. 125-142, US.
Urumovic, K, Urumovic, S. K, 2016: The referential grain size and effective porosity in the Kozeny – Carman model, Hydrology and Earth System Science (EGS), Copernicus Publications on behalf of the European Geosciences.
Vukovic, M., and Soro, A., 1992: Determination of Hydraulic Conductivity of Porous Media from Grain-Size Composition. Water Resources Publications, Littleton, Colorado.